Al-Jazeerah
Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem

 

Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Table of Contents

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise


7.
Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?  

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an  

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure

 

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith

 

2. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

3. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty

 

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims

 

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar

 

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 

 

2. Angels

 

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  

 

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran

 

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  

 

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

 

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

9. Latter Day (Day of Resurrection)

 

10. Qada and Qadar: God's  Decree and Estimate of Provision

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The La (No) Commands

 

3. The Imperative Commands 

 

***

 

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

 

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

 

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

 

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

 

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

 

Links to Islamic topics 2006

 

Links to Islamic topics 2005

 

Links to Islamic topics 2004

 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

 

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

 

 

 

Islam:

 

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

II.3

 

Giving Zakat (Charity), The Third Islamic Duty

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

17th of Rajab, 1436 - May 6th, 2015

 

Updated on the 12th of Rajab, 1438 - 8th of April 2017

 

***

 

 

 

 

 

1436 - / 2015

 

1438 \ 2017

 

***

ٰ

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

 

Introduction

 

 

The Arabic root verb "zakka," which means "to purify" or "to give charity" and its other derivatives were mentioned 57 times in the Holy Quran. Among these, the noun "Zakat," which means "purification" or "giving charity," was mentioned in the Holy Quran 32 times. In 26 times,  the noun "Zakat" was mentioned following the command of establishing prayer, as the second and third duties of Muslims (the first is the proclamation of faith), which are also known as "'ibadat" or ways of worshipping Allah, praise to Him. Two other derivatives of the verb "Zakka" (tazakka and yatazakka) were also mentioned with establishing prayer. [1]

 

This chapter includes verses dealing with the topic of Zakat, particularly those related to Zakat as a God's Command, believers' duty, meaning, rules, beneficiaries, rewards for givers, punishment to the miserly, and the rationale for giving Zakat. [2]  

 

 

1. The Commands of Giving Zakat

 

Allah, praise to Him, has commanded Muslims to give Zakat, charity, as their third duty. In most of the times, Zakat was mentioned in the Holy Quran directly after mentioning the establishment of prayer, as in the following verses.

 

 ( 2: 43). 

 

And establish prayer, give zakat, and bow with those who bow (in worship) (Al-Baqara, 2: 43).    

 

ٰ ٰ    ( 2: 83).

 

And (O Muhammed, mention to people the time) when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel (enjoining upon them to): "Do not worship except Allah, do good to parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, speak to people (with) good (words), establish prayer, and give zakat." Then, you (Children of Israel) turned away, except a few of you, and you were refusing (Al-Baqara, 2: 83).     

 

 ۚ  ۗ ( 2: 110).

 

And establish prayer, give zakat, and whatever good you put forward for yourselves you will find it with Allah. Indeed, Allah is Seeing of what you do,   (Al-Baqara, 2: 110).   

 

 ۖ ٰ ( 22: 78). 

 

So, establish prayer, give zakat, and hold fast to Allah. He is your Protector; the most excellent Protector and the most excellent Supporter (to you) (Al-'Haj, 22: 78).

 

   ( 24: 56). 

 

And establish prayer, give zakat, and obey the Messenger, that you may receive mercy   (Al-Noor, 24: 56).

 

 

 ۚ  ۚ  ( 58: 13). 

 

Have you feared to present before your consultation charities? If you do not do, and Allah has forgiven you, then (at least) establish prayer, give zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. And Allah is Acquainted with what you do  (Al-Mujadila, 58: 13). 

 

 ۚ  ۚ  ۖ    ( 73: 20).

 

And establish prayer, give zakat, and loan Allah a goodly loan. And whatever good you put forward for yourselves, you will find it with Allah. It is better and greater in reward. And seek forgiveness of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful (Al-Muzzammil, 73: 20).

 

 ۚ ٰ   ( 98: 5).   

 

And they (People of  the Book) were not commanded except to worship Allah, (be) sincere to Him in religion, inclining to truth, to establish prayer, and to give zakat. And that is the correct religion (Al-Bayyina, 98: 5). 

 

 ۖ  ۚ   ( 6: 141). 

 

Eat of its fruit when it yields, give its due (zakat) on the day of its harvest, and be not wasteful (excessive). Indeed, He does not like those who are wasteful (commit excess) (Al-Ana'am, 6: 141).

 

 

2. Giving Zakat: The Third Duty of Believers (The Third Way of Worship)

 

Giving Zakat has been described as a major characteristic of believers, as stated in the following verses:

 

  ( 5: 55). 

 

Your patron is Allah, (then) His Messenger, and (then) those who have believed - who establish prayer, give zakat, and bow (in worship) (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 55).  

 

 ۚ  ۚ ٰ  ۗ   ( 9: 71). 

 

The believing men and believing women are patrons to one another. They enjoin what is right, forbid what is wrong, establish prayer, give zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger - those whom Allah will have mercy upon. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise  (Al-Tawba, 9: 71). 

 

 ( 19: 31).

 

And He has made me (Jesus) blessed wherever I am, and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakat, as long as I remain alive (Maryam, 19: 31). 

 

 ۚ ﴿٥٤  ( 19: 55- 56).

 

And mention in the Book, Ismail (Ishmael). Indeed, he was true to his promise, and he was a messenger and a prophet. (54) And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakat, and  his Lord was pleased with him (Maryam, 19: 55-56). 

 

 ۖ ﴿٧٢  ۖ  ( 21: 72- 73).

 

And We gave him Is'haq (Isaac) and Ya'acoob (Jacob) in addition, and We made both (of them) righteous. (72) And We made them leaders, guiding by Our command. And We inspired to them the doing of good deeds, establishment of prayer, and giving of zakat. And they were worshippers of Us (Al-Anbiya, 21: 72-73).

 

 

3. Meaning of Zakat 

 

The Arabic word, which means "charity," is "Sadaqah." It is mentioned in Verse 103 of Surat Al-Tawba (Chapter 9) of the Holy Quran below. However, Allah, praise to Him, chose to describe the act of giving charity as "Zakat," which means "purification" in Arabic. So, giving charity purifies the human self (soul) of its shortcomings, as it elevates humans to a higher level of compassion and kindness, in which they care about other human beings, who are less fortunate for a reason or another.

 

In addition to being purified by giving Zakat (charity), the human self can also be purified by learning from God's Book, and by following His commands, as stated in the following verses.  

 

   ( 2: 151).

 

We also have sent among you a messenger from yourselves, reciting to you Our verses, purifying you, and teaching you the Book, the wisdom, and teaching you that which you did not know (Al-Baqara, 2: 151).   

 

( 3: 164). 

 

 Allah confered (a great) favor upon the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from themselves, reciting to them His verses, purifying them, and teaching them the Book and the wisdom, although they had been before in clear misguidance (Al-'Imran, 3: 164).  

 

 ۖ  ۗ   ( 9: 103). 

 

(O, Muhammad)! Take from their wealth a charity, which disinfects them and purifies them, and pray for them (call Allah to bless them). Indeed, your prayer is peace (tranquility) for them. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing (Al-Tawba, 9: 103).  

 

ٰ ٰ  ۚ   ( 35: 18). 

 

 And whoever purifies himself (by giving charity and by being close to Allah), he only purifies himself for (the benefit of) his soul. And to Allah is the (final) destination (Fatir, 35: 18). 

 

ٰ ٰ  ۗ  ( 24: 21). 

 

And if not for the favor of Allah and His mercy upon you, not one of you would have been pure, ever, but Allah purifies whom He wills, and Allah is Hearing and Knowing  (Al-Noor, 24: 21).  

ٰ  ۖ  ۖ ٰ  ۚ  ( 24: 28).

 

And if you do not find anyone there (in people's homes), do not enter them until permission has been given you. And if it is said to you, "Go back," then go back; it is purer for you. And Allah is Knowing of what you do    (Al-Noor, 24: 28).

 

 ۚ ٰ ٰ  ۗ    ( 24: 30).

 

Tell the believing men to lower their gaze, and guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what they do   (Al-Noor, 24: 30).  

 

 ( 62: 2).

 

It is He, who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves, reciting to them His verses, purifying them, and teaching them the Book and the wisdom - although they were before in clear misguidance  Al-Jumu'a, 62: 2). 

 

ٰ  ۖ ﴿١٢ ۖ   ( 19: 12- 13).

 

(Allah said): "O Ya'hya (John)! Take (learn) the Scripture with determination." And We gave him (good) judgment (while yet) a boy (12) And (We gave him) affection from Us and zakat (purity), and he was righteous (Maryam, 19: 12-13).

 

   ( 19: 19).

 

(The Angel) said (to Maryam, Mary): "I am only the messenger of your Lord, to give you a pure boy  (Maryam, 19: 19).  

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿١٧﴾ ٰ ٰ   ( 79: 17- 18).

 

ٰ  ( 80: 3).

 

ٰ  ( 87: 14).

 

 ( 91:  9).

 

ٰ  ( 92: 18). 

 

 

(Allah said to Moussa, Moses): "Go to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed. (17)  And say (to him): Would you like to purify yourself?(Al-Nazi'at, 79: 17- 18).

 

But what would make you perceive, (O Muhammad), that perhaps he might be purified ('Abasa, 80: 3).

 

He has certainly succeeded who purifies himself (Al-A'ala, 87: 14).

 

He has succeeded who purifies it (the soul) (Al-Shams, 91: 9).

 

(The righteous is the one) who gives (from) his wealth to purify himself (Al-Layl, 92: 18).

 

 

4. Rules of Zakat (Charity) 

 

Allah, praise to Him, has commanded Muslims to pray, give Zakat (charity), fast the month of Ramadhan, and make the pilgrimage to His House in Makkah but without giving details about how they can perform these duties. The Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), was taught by the Angel Jibril (Gabriel), peace be to him, about how these duties, or ways of worship ('ibadat) can be performed.

 

Then, Allah, praise to Him, has commanded Muslims to follow His Messenger, particularly in his explanation of God's commands and in how to perform their duties. This God's command to Muslims to follow His Messenger's teachings is found in Verse 16: 44, which states: 

 

  ( 16: 44).

 

And We revealed to you the message (the Holy Quran), that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them, and that they might think (about its content) (Al-Na'hl, 16: 44).

 

There are several other verses in the Holy Quran, in which Allah, praise to Him, commands Muslims to obey His Messenger and follow his teachings, such as 4: 59, 65, 80; 33: 36; and 59: 7.

 

( 4: 59).

 

ٰ   ( 4: 65).

 

 ۖ  ( 4: 80).

 

 ۗ  ( 33: 36).

 

 ۚ  ( 59: 7).

 

 

O You, who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Al-Nissa, 4: 59).

 

But no, by your Lord, they will not (truly) believe until they make you (O Muhammad their) judge concerning that over which they dispute (Al-Nissa, 4: 65).

 

He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah (Al-Nissa, 4: 80).

 

It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should have any choice about their affair (Al-A'hzab, 33: 36).

 

And whatever (teaching) the Messenger has given you, take it; and what he has forbidden you about, refrain from (Al-'Hashr, 59: 7).  

 

 

The Messenger's Operationalization of Zakat (charity): How Much Should Be Given Away?

 

Thus, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, told Muslims about how to pray, including the number of units (Raka'as) in each prayer. He also taught Muslims about how to fast, and about the specific rules and rituals of the pilgrimage (Haj).

 

Concerning Zakat (charity), the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, told Muslims that it is calculated as 2.5% of the financial wealth a person has in a year, whether this is in money or in value of merchandise, estimated in money.

 

 In the case of agricultural products (fruits and grains), Zakat is calculated as 10% of the products if these are produced with rain or without irrigation, and as 5% if irrigation is used.

 

Rules of Zakat for domestic animals (camels, cows, sheep, and goats) were explained in detail by the first Caliph, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him. [3]  

 

In our time, agribusiness owners and ranchers can estimate the value of their agricultural products or animals after deducting the costs, just like other merchandise, and give a Zakat of 2.5% of the value of their animals.

 

 

5. Beneficiaries: To Whom Zakat Should Be Given? 

 

The beneficiaries of Zakat (charity) are mentioned in about twelve categories of people. These are the poor, the needy, the deprived, relatives, orphans, the stranded travelers, those who ask for help (petitioners), for freeing slaves and captives, for those in debt, for bringing hearts together (support for new Muslims), those employed to collect it, and for the cause of Allah, as stated in the following verses of the Holy Quran.  

 

ٰ ٰ ٰ ٰ  ۖ  ۗ ٰ  ۖ ٰ   ( 2: 177).

 

Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but righteousness is (in) one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets, and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask (for help), and for freeing slaves; (and who) establishes prayer and gives zakat; (those who) fulfill their promise when they promise; and (those who) are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous (Al-Baqara, 2: 177). 

 

 

 ۖ  ۗ   ( 9: 60).

 

 

Charity expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler - an obligation [imposed] by Allah. And Allah is Knowing and Wise (Al-Tawba, 9: 60).

 

 

﴿٢٤ ﴿٢٥﴾  ( 70: 24-25).

 

 

And those within whose wealth is a known right (24) For the petitioner and the deprived - (25)  (Al-Ma'arij, 70: 24-25). 

 

 

6. Rewards for Zakat Givers 

 

Believers who give Zakat (charity) will have a great reward from their Lord, including an everlasting life in Paradise, enjoying God's Mercy, and avoiding His punishment in the Hell Fire, as stated in the following verses: 

 

    ( 2: 277).

 

Indeed, those who have believed, do righteous deeds, establish prayer, and give zakat will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve (Al-Baqara, 2: 277).   

 

﴿١٧ ٰ ﴿١٨﴾  ( 92: 17- 18).

 

But the righteous one will avoid it (the Fire) (17) who gives (from) his wealth to purify himself (18)  (Al-Layl, 92: 18). 

 

ٰ  ۚ  ۚ ٰ    ( 4: 162).

 

But those firm in knowledge among them, and the believers, believe in what has been revealed to you (O Muhammad), and what was revealed before you. And the establishers of prayer, the givers of zakat, and the believers in Allah and the Last Day - those We will give a great reward  (Al-Nissa, 4: 162). 

 

ٰ  ۚ  ۖ  ۚ   ( 7: 156). 

 

And decree for us a good (life) in this world and in the Hereafter. Indeed, we have turned back to You. (Allah) said: "I afflict My punishment on whom I will, but My mercy encompasses all things." So I will decree it for those who are righteous, (who) give zakat, and those who believe in Our verses (Al-A'araf, 7: 156). 

 

 ۚ ٰ ٰ ( 20: 76). 

 

(There are) gardens of perpetual residence, beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally, and that is the reward of (the one) who purifies himself  (Taha, 20: 76). 

 

 ۗ ( 22: 41). 

 

Those who, if We give them authority on the land, establish prayer, give zakat, enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong. And to Allah belongs the outcome of (all) matters (Al-'Haj, 22: 41). 

 

 ۖ ٰ  ( 30: 39). 

 

And whatever you give for interest to increase within the wealth of people will not increase with Allah. But what you give in zakat, desiring the countenance of Allah - those are the multipliers (of rewards) (Al-Room, 30: 39).

 

 

7. Punishment for Not Giving Zakat 

 

Those who are capable to give Zakat (charity), but do not do so, will be punished in the Hell Fire, with the heated gold and silver, (which) they horded and denied the less fortunate from, as stated in the following verses:

 

ٰ ٰ ٰ  ۗ ﴿٦  ( 41: 6- 7).

 

 

Say (O [Muhammad): "I am only a human like you, to whom it has been revealed that your God is One God. So, take a straight course to Him and seek for His forgiveness." And woe to those who associate others with Him - (6) those who do not give zakat, and in the Hereafter they are disbelievers (Fussilat, 41: 7).  

 

 ۗ ﴿٣٤﴾ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ٰ ﴿٣٥( 9: 34-35).

 

 

O you who have believed, indeed many of the rabbis and the monks devour the wealth of people unjustly, and avert (poeple) from the way of Allah. And those who hoard gold and silver, and do not spend it in the way of Allah - give them tidings of a painful punishment. (34)

 

The Day when it (the bullion of gold and silver) will be heated in the fire of Hell, to sear (burn) their foreheads, their flanks, and their backs. (Iit will be said): "This is what you hoarded for yourselves. So, taste what you used to hoard." (35)  (Al-Tawba, 9: 34-35).

 

 

8. Rationale for Giving Zakat 

 

Allah, praise to Him, is the Merciful and the Beneficent, who benefits all of His creations, as He described Himself in the Holy Quran. By commanding believers to give Zakat (charity) and care for each-other, He wants them to be like Him in His giving and generosity to all of His creation.

 

All of God's commands to humans aim at benefiting them as individuals, groups, communities, and as a world. While cleanliness of wudu, movements of prayers, and fasting bring direct benefits to the human body, giving charity brings benefits to the human self (soul). It purifies the human self by elevating it to a higher level of compassion, thus contributing to self-content and internal peace. Knowing that giving Zakat brings them closer to their Lord, believers become assured of the everlasting gratification in the hereafter, which contributes to their assurance and happiness during their life on Earth.

 

Moreover, Allah, praise to Him, made giving Zakat (charity) a right for the needy in the wealth of the wealthy, as stated in verses 24-25 of Surat Al-Ma'arij (Chapter 70) of the Holy Quran. This right stems from the fact that the success of individuals is not just dependent on their personal characteristics. Rather, many other people and circumstances contribute to their success, such as the blessing of being raised in a functional family and a functional community, both of which provide them with the right health care, education, and security. Thus, giving Zakat is an act of giving back to the community some of what an individual takes from it, it's a right for the needy in the wealth of those who are better off.

 

﴿٢٤﴾ ﴿٢٥﴾  ( 70: 24-25). 

 

And those within whose wealth is a known right (24) For the petitioner and the deprived - (25)  (Al-Ma'arij, 70: 24-25). 

 

 

The same meaning is also mentioned in the following Hadith of the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, about God's command for rulers to take charity from the wealthy and give it to the poor:

 

- - :

 

"... ." ( ). 

 

When the Prophet, pbbuh, sent (his companion) Mu'adh, to Yemen, he said to him:

 

"Inform them them that Allah has ordained Charity on them, to be taken from their wealthy, to be returned to their poor."

 

(It was narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).

 

 

Moreover, as an act of social solidarity, giving Zakat (charity) contributes to more stability and prosperity in society, as the needy know and feel that they are not abandoned and left behind. However, instability and disorder may occur in societies where the wealthy deny this right of the poor, who may react to this denial by participation in riots, upheavals, and revolutions, as stated in Verse 25 of Surat Al-Anfal (Chapter 8) of the Holy Quran. 

 

 ۖ   ( 8: 25). 

 

And avoid an upheaval (trial), which will not strike those who have transgressed, among you exclusively, and know that Allah is severe in penalty (Al-Anfal, 8: 25).

 

 

Conclusion 

 

Giving Zakat (charity) is one of the main commands of Allah. It is the third duty (way of worship) for Muslims to observe. It is a right for the poor in the wealth of the wealthy. It is a purification for the human self (soul), rewarded by living eternally in Paradise. Those who are wealthy and deny it to the poor and the needy will be punished in the Hell Fire.

 

Allah, praise to Him, wants humans to care for and benefit each-other. When this happens, individuals, groups, and communities experience social solidarity, stability, and prosperity. If the wealthy ignore the poor and deny them their right in the wealth, then instability and disorder may happen as a result. 

 

This is Islam at one of its manifestations, as God's message of guidance to humanity.

 

 

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Notes

 

[1] These numbers are drawn from two Arabic indexes of the Holy Quran. The first is an online source, www.tanzil.info. The second is on paper, "The Holy Quran Index," by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr.1406 (1986). The Arabic Title of the index is: Al-Muajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Quran Al-Kareem.

 

The word "Zakat," which means "purification" or "giving charity," was mentioned as a noun in the Holy Quran 32 times. In 26 times, it was mentioned following the mention of establishing prayer, as the second and third duties and characteristics of Muslims, as stated in the following verses:

 

2: 43, 2:83, 2: 110, 2: 177, 2: 277, 4: 77, 4: 162, 5: 12, 5: 55, 9: 5, 9: 11, 9: 18, 9: 71, 19: 31, 19: 55, 21: 73, 22: 41, 22: 78, 24: 37, 24: 56, 27: 3, 31: 4, 33: 33, 58: 13, 73: 20, and 98: 5.

 

 Two other derivatives of the verb "Zakka" (tazakka and yatazakka) were also mentioned with establishing prayer, as stated twice in 35: 18.

 

Other derivatives of the verb "zakka" were mentioned 29 times of the Holy Quran but without being linked with the duty of establishing prayer, as stated in the following verses:

 

2: 129, 2: 151, 2: 174, 2: 232, 3: 77, 3: 164, 4: 49, 7: 156, 9: 103, 18: 19, 18: 74, 18: 81, 19: 3, 19: 19, 20: 76, 23: 4, 24: 28, 24: 30, 30: 39, 41: 7, 62: 2, 79: 18, 80: 3, 80: 7, 87: 14, 91: 9, and 92: 18.

 

[2] The English translation of the meanings of the verses of the Holy Quran in this book is based on the Sahih International and other translations of the Holy Quran, which are published at www.tanzil.net. However, this author is solely responsible for the changes made, such as in the transliteration of Arabic letter sounds, in the use of parentheses to a clarification to the Arabic text), and in the use of the English comma instead of the Arabic conjunctive word "and" when there's a sequence of related words or phrases.

The Arabic conjunctive letter ( ) is translated by this author as a comma (,) instead of translating it as "and" because both the comma and the Arabic letter have the same meaning. Thus, this translation conforms with the English language norm of using commas to separate related words or phrases, with using "and" before the last word of the sequence.

 

Here is an illustration about the difference in the translation, as applied to verse 2: 83, which has seven Arabic conjunctive   letters, separating related words or phrases in a sequence: 

 

 

ٰ ٰ    ( 2: 83). 

The following is a translation of Verse 2:83, using an emphasized English comma (,) as a translation for the Arabic conjunctive letter ( ) :

 

 And (O Muhammed, mention to people the time) when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel (enjoining upon them to): "Do not worship except Allah, do good to parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, speak to people (with) good (words), establish prayer, and give zakat." Then, you (Children of Israel) turned away, except a few of you, and you were refusing (Al-Baqara, 2: 83).   

 

The following is a translation of the same Verse, 2:83, using the English conjunctive word "and" as a translation for the Arabic conjunctive letter  :

 

And (O Muhammed, mention to people the time) when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel (enjoining upon them to): "Do not worship except Allah and do good to parents and relatives and orphans and the needy and speak to people (with) good (words) and establish prayer and give zakat." Then, you (Children of Israel) turned away, except a few of you, and you were refusing    (Al-Baqara, 2: 83).   

 

 

[3] Arabic Hadith texts specifying financial Zakat as 2.5%, as posted in fatwa.islamweb.net:

 

http://fatwa.islamweb.net/fatwa/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=238078

 

2.5 % . :

 

. .

 

2.5 % .

 

... ǡ ...  .

 

: , .

 

, : ǡ ǡ : .

 

: ǡ : : :

 

 

 Arabic Hadith texts specifying Zakat on agricultural products, as posted in bayanelislam.net:

 

http://bayanelislam.net/Suspicion.aspx?id=03-03-0027

 

 

  - - :

 

" ѡ " ( ).

 

 

: :

 

" "

 

. . ( ). 

 

 

Quantities of Zakat on domestic animals were stated by Caliph Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, in his directions to Anas, who was going to collect charity from the people of Bahrain. Abu Bakr's rules have been explained in detail by many scholars, such as Sa'id Bin Ali Al-Qa'htani, posted at www.alukah.net

 

 

:

 

" .

 

.

 

.

 

.

 

.

 

( ) .

 

.

 

.

 

***

 

3/319:

 

ѡ   "" .

 

: .   : " " ѡ . ."

 

: .

 

.

 

.  

 

ǡ ( 3/319).

 

 

Abu Bakr's rules about domestic animals Zakat were also explained briefly by Muhammed Bin Salih Al-'Uthaymeen, at:

 

 http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_18068.shtml  

 

 

 

=============================================================================================================================

 

 

About the Author and the Book:

 

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
 
This work is solely devoted for the sake of Allah, to educate people about Islam, in response to a great demand to know about the final message of God to humanity.
 
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net
.

 

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.
 
May Allah, praise to Him, enlighten the hearts and minds of all who read this book, and guide them to the right path.
 
May Allah, praise to Him, accept this effort, as a contribution to spreading His light among the people of this Earth.

 

 

  ( 61: 8).  

 

 

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8). 

 

 

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.

 

editor@aljazeerah.info