Al-Jazeerah


Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Al-Quds (Jerusalem)

 

Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar 

Table of Contents 

I. Introduction: Basic Information  

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction  

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan   

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity   

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an  

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth  

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?   

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings   

9. Spirit, Soul, Mind, Self, and Happiness, from an Islamic Perspective

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an   

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure 

11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith 

12. Performing Islamic Prayers 

13. Giving Zakah (Charity) 

14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims 

15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar 

16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran   

17. Angels 

18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran    

19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran 

20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran 

21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran   

22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

24. The Last Day: The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran 

2. The No (La) Commands 

3. The Imperative Commands 

*** 

Articles with Islamic Perspective: 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective  

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture  

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews  

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings  
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens   

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with  

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007 

Links to Islamic topics 2006 

Links to Islamic topics 2005 

Links to Islamic topics 2004 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003  

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

 

Islam:

A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

16

Allah,

Praise to Him in His Highness

Who Is He?

What Does He Want for Humans?

As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

1st Day of Jumada Al-Thani, 1442, December 16, 2020

 

 

 

    1442     2020

 

 

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

 

A'oudhu Billahi Minashaytan irrajeem

Bismillah irra'hman irra'heem

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Introduction  

This Chapter is About Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala), as He has described Himself in the Holy Quran. It attempts to provide information about Who He is and what He wants for us, humans.

It is divided into seven sections. The first includes explanations for the meanings of the most cited Good Names of Allah. The second section addresses Gods physical features, which He has mentioned in the Holy Quran. In the third section, there is an attempt to explain why Allah has created humans, on Earth, and what He wants for them. The fourth section is the largest in this chapter. It starts with a background about the subject, followed by a list of the Good Names of Allah, which represent His traits and capabilities, as mentioned literally and directly in Holy Quran, with verse references and explanation of each Name, and how its meanings can be applied to our everyday life. The fifth section includes three categories of the attributes of Allah, which have not been included in the long list of the Good Names of Allah. These are verbal names, qualities denied to others, and traits deducted by other authors. The sixth section provides a table containing the 147 listed Good Names of Allah, mentioned in the fourth section. Finally, the seventh section is provided as a table, which contains the 99 Good Names of Allah, as selected by this author in response to the Prophets call to Muslims. This list is selected from the larger list mentioned in the fourth and sixth sections, after the exclusion of other Names, which are derivatives of the same verb

This author is solely responsible for both the specific translation of verse meanings and the summary translation of verse interpretations, which are attributed to the cited Islamic scholars. 

 

First, the most cited Good Names of Allah

In Verse 98 of Surat Al-Na'hl (Chapter 16) of the Holy Quran, Allah praise to Him instructs Muslims to "seek refuge with Him from the Stoned Shaytan (Cursed and expelled Satan)" whenever they start reciting the Holy Book. This also applies to prayers, before starting the recitation of the first Chapter of the Holy Quran, and at the start of any action, to be shielded against the evil of the Shaytan whispering. In addition, the description of the Shaytan (Satan) as "Stoned" is a reference to the story of Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be upon him, who threw stones at the Shaytan, when he tried to dissuade him away from obedience to Allah, as we learn from the Hadith. [1]
 
Thus, we start this Chapter about the Good Names of Allah, saying:

 
ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

One of the best ways to know about Allah is by studying His Good Name, which He has mentioned in His Book and final Message to humanity, the Holy Quran. The most cited of these Names among Muslims is "Allah, followed by Ar-Ra'hman, Ar-Ra'heem, Rabbul-'Aalameen, Al-A'had, As-Samad, Al-'hayyu, Al-Qayyoom, and Nooru as-samawati wal ardhi. 

1. Allah: The God 

"Allah" is the name which the Great Creator, praise to Him, has described Himself with in three verses of the Holy Quran. In Verse 14 of Surat Taha (Chapter 20), He declares that there is no other god but Him. Therefore, His creations have to worship Him, particularly by establishing prayers, in which His name is constantly mentioned. In Verse 9 of Surat Al-Naml (Chapter 27), He follows His name Allah with two other Good Names of His, the Exalted in Might and the Wise. In Verse 30 of Surat Al-Qassas (Chapter 28), He declares that He is Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, which means that He is the Educator, the Guardian, and the Source of Sustenance for His creations. As a result, He is worthy of being worshipped by His creations as an expression of gratitude for His blessings, which include life, care, provision, and the promise of everlasting life in the hereafter for the human and jinni righteous believers among them.

ٰ   ( 20: 14). *

  ٰ   ( 27: 9).

ٰ ( 28: 30). 

Indeed, I am Allah. There is no other god except Me. So, worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance (Ta Ha, 20: 14).

O Moussa (Moses), indeed, I am Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-Naml, 27: 9).

O Moussa (Moses), indeed I am Allah, Lord of the worlds (Al-Qassas, 28: 30).

***

Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has created humans and Jinn to worship Him, as stated in Verse 56 of Surat Al-Dhariyat (Chapter 51). Though He does not need them to worship Him (51: 57, 35: 15, and 22: 37). Rather, He has commanded them to do so for their own benefit, as individuals, groups, and societies, as stated in many verses of the Holy Quran, such as 2: 271-272, 17: 7, 22: 37 and 62: 9.

Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, is so loving and caring for His human and jinn creations that He sent them messages, to show them how they can be happy during their first (lower) life and in the Hereafter. Basically, He told them to be good to themselves, to their families and relatives, to their society, and to the world. That is the essence of worshipping Him through proclaiming the faith, performing prayers, giving charity, fasting Ramadan, making the pilgrimage, and doing as many good deeds to each other as they can.

By worshipping their Creator, they enjoy happiness in this life, in addition to pleasing their loving and caring Creator, Who has promised to reward them an everlasting life in Paradise, in the Hereafter (More on the benefits of these ways of worshipping God can be found in Chapter I. 8, "The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical in Islamic Teachings."

The word "Allah" means "the God," or "Al-Ilah." In addressing God, a Muslim may say in Arabic "Ilahi" (my God). However, Muslims usually refer to God with the definite article, Al, contracted with the noun it defines, to become Allah, thus addressing Him with "Ya Allah," which means "O Allah." [2]

2. Al-Ra'hman, Al-Ra'heem: The Beneficent, The Merciful   ٰ

These two Good Names of Allah are mentioned in the first Verse of Chapter 1 (Surat Al-Fati'ha), known as "Al-Basmala," and in many other verses throughout the Holy Quran.

"Al-Ra'hman, Al-Ra'heem" are  pronounced as arra'hman, arra'heem, as the definite article "Al" is contracted with the noun, deleting the letter ( l ) and replacing it with the first letter of the defined noun, ( r ). Adding an apostrophe before the letter h indicates an Arabic glottal sound, which has no equivalence in English.

The renowned Islamic scholars, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Katheer, [3] related explanations of these two Good Names of Allah from Abu Ali Al-Farisi and Al-'Arzami, may Allah be pleased with them, who said that Al-Ra'hman (The the Beneficent) is a reference to God's mercy to all of His creations, as expressed in providing them with what they need and enabling them to enjoy His provisions. However, Al-Ra'heem (The Merciful) is a reference to God's extra mercy to the believers.

While most translators of the Holy Quran agreed on the translation of "Al-Raheem" as "The Merciful," they differed in translating "Al-Rahman." The two most used translations are "The Beneficent," and "The Compassionate." This author has found that "The Beneficent" is a more accurate translation on the basis of the above-mentioned interpretation from the cited Islamic scholars.

ٰ ﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤﴾  ( 55: 1- 4). *

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

The Beneficent, (1) has taught the Quran, (2) created the human (being), (3) taught him speech (Al-Rahman, 55: 1- 4).

***

Ibn Katheer interpreted the first four verses of Surat Al-Rahman (55:1- 4), as a statement from Allah, the Beneficent, Praise to Him in His Highness, that He descended the Holy Quran to His worshipper Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), and made it easy to memorize and understand by believers. Al-Dhahak and Qutada, may Allah be pleased with them, added that He made the Holy Quran easy to be taught to believers so that they use it in telling the truth, enjoining the good, and preaching against the wrongdoing. Al-Hassan, may Allah be pleased with him, interpreted it as enabling believers to pronounce its letters correctly, so that they can recite it in the best and most beautiful ways.

Al-Tabari added that Allah, the Beneficent, extended His mercy to humans by descending His Holy Quran to guide them to success and happiness in this life and to help them avoid His punishment in the hereafter.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned the interpretation of Sa'id Bin Jubair and 'Aamir Al-Sha'abi, who said the letters of the name of Allah, "Al-Ra'hman," are the opening letters of thirteen Suras (Chapters) of the Holy Quran. These are "A, L, R" (the opening letters of Chapters 10-15 ), "H, M" (the opening letters of Chapters 40-46 ), and "N" (the opening letter of Surat Al-Qalam, Chapter 68). Together, these letters form the word, "ALRHMN," which is Al-Rahman, as Arabic words may include only consonants in the basic writing. While vowels are added over or under of a letter (known as tashkeel) in the Holy Quran, the vowels are not usually added in common writings, such as in books and in written media. [4]

These first four verses of Surat Al-Rahman (55:1- 4) tell humans of four blessings bestowed upon them by Allah, praise to Him in His Highness. The first verse tells them that Allah, the Beneficent, has mercy to all of them. The second verse tells them of His second blessing, which is descending the Holy Quran to humanity also as mercy and guidance for them to be happy in this life, as well as in the hereafter. The third verse is a reminder to them that Allah, the Beneficent, created them in the best image, fashion, and proportions. The fourth verse is a reference to the blessing of enabling humans how to speak by creating the physiological features necessary for speech, in the mouth, larynx, and the brain, and by blessing them with the suitable environment, as explained in Chapter 4, "Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran."

3. Rabbul-'Aalameen: The Lord of the Worlds 

This Good Name of God is written as Rab Al-'Aalameen but it maybe pronounced as rabbul 'aalameen, rabbil 'aalameen, or rabbal 'aalameen, depending on its relationship to other words in a sentence, according to the Arabic grammatical rules. Adding an apostrophe before the letter "a" indicates an Arabic glottal sound, which has no equivalence in English. [5]

This Good Name of Allah, Rabbul-'Aalameen, was first mentioned in the second verse of Surat Al-Fatiha (1: 2). Verses 75-82 of Surat Al-Shuara (Chapter 26) of the Holy Quran explaining the word Rab as the One Who guides, feeds, waters, heals, and resurrects people after death. Verses 26: 23-24 tell us about the meaning of the word Al-Aalameen as the worlds of the heavens, the Earth, as well as (that which is) between them.  

﴿٢٣﴾ ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 26: 23-24).

Said Pharaoh, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) (Moussa, Moses) said, "The Lord of the heavens and the Earth, and that (which is) between them, if you should be convinced." (24) (Al-Shuara, 26: 23-24).

Thus, Rabbul 'Aalameen is the Lord of all these worlds where angels, humans, Jinn, and other creations live, with His care, compassion, and kindness.

4. Al-A'had, Al-Samad: The One in the Beginning and in the End, The Ultimate Provider   ٱ

These two Good Names of Allah are mentioned in Verses 1-2 of Chapter 112 (Surat Al-Ikhlas), of the Holy Quran.

ۡ ٕ

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

ٱ (١) ٱ ٱ (٢) ۡ ۡ ۡ ۡ (٣) ۡ  ۥ ڪ ۢ (٤) ( 112: 1- 4).

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan


In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Say: He is Allah, (the) One; (1)

Allah, the Eternal; (2)

He did not beget (give birth) and He was not begotten (given birth to); (3)

And there has never been anyone equal to Him. (4) (Surat Al-Ikhlas, 112: 1 - 4).

Verses 3-4 of Surat Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112) of the Holy Quran explain the meaning of the first Good Name of Allah, mentioned in the first verse, Al-A'had, as the One Who had nobody else with Him at the beginning, nobody else is partner with Him in His dominium, nobody gave birth to Him and He did not give birth to anybody. Nothing is similar or equal to Him, praise to Him in His Highness.

Al-Samad (pronounced as As-Samad) is mentioned as a Good Name of Allah, in the second verse of Surat Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112) of the Holy Quran. It means that He is the source of help, provision, and guidance for those who ask for them. It also means that He is the Ultimate Judge over His creations on the Last Day.

Whoever wants to get part of this divine characteristic needs to fast as much as possible following the path of the Prophet, pbbuh (i.e. several days every month, in addition to the month of Ramadhan), or to eat, drink, and speak as less as possible. He/she also needs to mention this characteristic of God, Al-Samad, as many times as possible during his/her day. This empowers his/her spiritual side and keeps the body desires under control (Surat Al-Ikhlas, Chapter 112, verse 2).

***

5. Al-'Hayyu, Al-Qayyoom: The Eternally Living, The Sustainer of the Universe           

These two Good Names of Allah are mentioned in Verse 255 of Chapter 2 (Surat Al-Baqara) of the Holy Quran, known as "Ayatul Kursi" (Verse of the Chair).

 

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

 ( 2: 255). 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Allah! There is no (other) god but He, the Eternally Living, the Maintainer (in charge of all things). Neither slumber nor sleep seizes Him. His is whatsoever in the Heavens and the Earth. Who is that who intercedes in His presence, except by His permission! (Nobody does).

He knows what is between their hands and what is behind them. And they do not surround a thing of His knowledge except whatever He wills. His Chair encompasses the heavens and the Earth, and it does not fatigue Him to preserve both of them (the Heavens and the Earth), and He is the High, the Great (Al-Baqara, 2: 255).

***

Ibn Katheer, may Allah reward him for his great work, mentioned that the Prophet, pbbuh, said that the Verse of the Chair (2: 255) is the greatest verse of the Holy Quran, because it includes the greatest Name of Allah, Al-Hayyu, Al-Qayyoom. [6]

In addition to Verse 2: 255, these two greatest Names of Allah are also mentioned together in two other verses of the Holy Quran (Al-Imran, 3: 2 and Taha, 20: 111).

Without relation to specific verses, Al-Hayyu means "The Living," and Al-Qayyoom means "The Standing." However, within the context of Verse 2: 255, the two Good Names of Allah are complimentary to each-other, meaning the Eternally Living, Who is Standing, in permanent control of and care for His creations.

While the Name of Allah and the Name of Al-Qayyoom were the only Names mentioned in these three verses, the Name of Al-Hayyu alone was mentioned in two other verses: 25: 58 and 40: 65, as follows:

ۚ ( 25: 58).

  ٰ ۗ ( 40: 65).

And rely upon the Eternally-Living, who does not die, and exalt Him with His praise (Al-Furqan, 25: 58).

He is the Eternally-Living, there is no deity except Him. So, call upon Him, (while being) sincere to Him in religion (Ghafir, 40: 65).

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that the greatest Name of God could be Al-Hayyu. However, it is more likely to be either Allah or Al-Qayyoom, because these two Names were included in the meaning of the Hadith, in its reference to the three mentioned verses. In addition, Al-Hayyu was mentioned alone in two other verses,  and Allah knows better.

***

Further, Al-Qayyoom means that He is Eternally Awake and in control of His universal system, including His Throne, Chair, the Seven Heavens, and the Seven Earths. He takes care of His creations living in them, providing them with the needed life requirements and sustenance.

Al-Hayyu means the Source and Giver of Life. He was the First, before Whom there was nothing and nobody. He is and will be the Last, the Eternally Living, Who does not die, while each one of His creations has its life span, at the end of which he/she dies and his/her record is completed, as discussed in Chapter 9: Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that the Greatest of Gods Names is Al-Hayyu. However, by looking at the three verses mentioned in the Hadith, it is more likely to be Al-Qayyoom, as Al-Hayyu was mentioned in two more verses, not mentioned in the Hadith, and Allah knows better.

***
The three renowned Islamic scholars (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer) divided the "Verse of the Chair" into ten distinct Arabic sentences, and interpreted them mainly, as follows:

Allah! There is no (other) god but He, (means that He is the only God for all creations to worship).

The Eternally-Living, the Maintainer (in charge and control of all things), which means that He was the First and He will be the Last. While His creations die, He never dies. His creations need Him for sustenance, but He does not need anybody.

Neither slumber nor sleep seizes Him, which means that He is the Maintainer of the Universe and the Sustainer of all His creations. He neither sleeps nor even slumbers for a moment. Thus, He knows everything, and He is in control of the heavens, Earth, and that which is in between, at all times.

Whatsoever in the Heavens and the Earth belongs to Him. This means that He alone, without any partners, owns and controls everything and everyone in the Heavens and on the Earth, all are under His power, and all should worship Him alone.

Who is that who intercedes in His presence, except by His permission! This means that nobody dares to intercede for others, that is, to plead with God on behalf of His creations, who will be waiting in suffering for reckoning, on the Day of Judgment, unless Allah permits him/her to do so.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, will permit intersession by the Prophets, scholars, those who fight for His sake (Mujahidoon), and angels, as a way to honor them on the Day of Judgment. He will also allow good believers to intercede for other believers, as they prayed and fasted together in this life. A child may also be allowed to intercede for his/her parents.

The greatest intercession will be permitted only to Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh. He will make a long Sujood (prostration) until Allah tells him to lift his head and ask, and his call will be answered. The Prophet, pbbuh, then asks Allah to quicken reckoning, in order to relieve the believers from suffering under the heat of the son. The Prophet will be asked to do this job of intercession by all of the Messengers of God who preceded him, as they know that Allah loves him most. [7]

He knows what is between their hands and what is behind them. This means that, as an example of God's omniscience and His circumventing (complete) knowledge, He knows what His creations (angels, humans, and jinn) show and what they hide, what they do at their present and what they did in the past, what happens to them in this life and what will happen to them in the hereafter.

And they do not surround a thing of His knowledge, except that whichever He wills. This means that while Allah has complete knowledge about His creations, they do not know anything about His knowledge, except that which He wills for some of them, such as His messages revealed to humans through His Messengers.

His Chair encompasses the Heavens and the Earth. According to Companion Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, the Chair maybe a reference to God's knowledge. However, Abu Malik and other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, narrated some of the Prophets Hadiths about the size of the Chair. The meaning of the Hadiths is that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, sits on the Throne and puts his feet on the Chair. This part of the verse tells us about the size of the Chair, which is so immense that the Heavens and the Earth are encompassed under it. [8]

And it does not fatigue Him to preserve both of them (the heavens and the Earth). This means that it does not tire or fatigue Him to preserve the systems of Heavens and the Earth, including taking care of their structures, functioning, whoever lives on and between them.

And He is the High, the Great. This means that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness (subhanahu wa taala), is higher than all of His creations, including His Throne, His Chair, the systems of Heavens and Earths. He is the Great, in bringing His creations to existence, preserving them, as well as caring and providing sustenance to all who live in them.

6. Nooru as-Samawati wal ardhi: Light of the Heavens and the Earth     

This Good Name of Allah is mentioned in Verse 35 of Chapter 24 (Surat Al-Noor) of the Holy Quran, known as Ayatun Nour (Verse of The Light). 

( 24: 35).

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. The similitude of His Light is as a Niche, within which is a Lamp. The Lamp is in a glass (container). The glass (container) is like a bright planet. The light (of the lamp) is produced by fire from a blessed olive tree (oil), which is neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost illuminate, without being touched by fire. Light Upon Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allah gives examples for people (as illustration), and Allah is Knowledgeable of everything (Al-Noor, 24: 35).

 

***

Interpretation of Ayatun Nour (The Verse of The Light):

Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth: Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth and the Guidance for those who dwell in or on them. The Prophet, pbbuh, also told us about this Good Name of Allah. He was asked if He saw Allah when he ascended above the Seventh Heaven, during his Night Journey. He answered: "I saw Light"). [9]

The similitude of His Light is as a Niche, within which is a Lamp: The example of God's Light is like a lamp in a niche, a recess in a wall, which keeps its light concentrated, not dispersed.

The Lamp is in a glass (container): The glass container allows seeing the lamp light, focuses it, and protects it from being extinguished by wind. It is noteworthy that the current electric lamps are also covered with glass containers.

The glass (container) is like a bright planet: The glass containing the lamp appears as a bright planet, as its atmosphere reflects the sun light. So, we see it glittering.  

(The light of the lamp) is produced by fire from a blessed olive tree:

The olive tree has been honored by being mentioned here in verse 24: 35 and in 5 other verses of the Holy Quran. It is a blessed tree for the many benefits it provides people with, such as oil for cooking, lighting, messaging skin, and feeding hair roots. Its beans are also delicious after processing. Finally, the bean seeds are used as firewood for cooking and heating purposes. [10]

which is neither of the east nor of the west:

This means that the blessed tree is growing in the best location of the oil grove. It is in the middle, in a clear distance from other trees. This provides it with several benefits, such as sun light all day, sufficient quantities of air, and enough nutrients from the soil. Consequently, these benefits enable it from producing the best of oil. If it were located at the eastern or western sides of the grove, it would not have been enjoying these benefits, and as a result, would not have been able to produce the best of oil. 

whose oil would almost illuminate, without being touched by fire: Due to its ideal location and the related benefits it gets therein, this blessed tree produces the purest of oil, which almost illuminates, even without being touched by fire.

Light Upon Light: This is a reference to the light of the fire and the light of the oil together, as interpreted by Mujahid and Al-Suddi, mAbpwt both. However, other interpreters added that it is guidance from Allah upon the effort from the believer to learn the Holy Quran and apply it.

Allah guides to His Light whom He wills:

His Light is His Message of Islam to humanity, which was revealed through His Messengers and was completed by the Holy Quran, through the Seal of all Messengers of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh.

Allah, praise to Him, guides to His Light whom He wills, particularly those who believe in Him and do good deeds, follow His commands, and turn back to Him. He will guide them, illuminating their path with His Light. However, He does not guide the wrongdoers, those who are disobedient to Him, disbelievers, and those who insist on their disbelief of Him.  [11]

And Allah gives examples for people (as illustration). So, they can understand, and Allah is knowledgeable of everything (Al-Noor, 24: 35).

***

The whole verse can be interpreted as the Light of God, as Ibn 'Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, said, or as the Light of the believer, as the four scholars also mentioned. Thus, God's Light is guidance to the believers, assuring them and reinforcing their faith to worship Him. It is like a lamp in a niche. The lamp here is the heart of the believer, which has been lighted with faith, and with learning the Holy Quran and the Sunna. These represent the sources of guidance to faith in God for the believer, just like the good, pure oil as the source for the lamp light.

Al-Qurtubi added that Allah, praise to Him, described the Holy Quran as a "Clear Light" in Verse 174 of Surat Al-Nissa (Chapter 4). He also described Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, as "Light" in Verse 15 of Surat Al-Maeda (Chapter 5). Thus, the believer is guided by the Light of the Holy Quran and the Light of the Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, (his Sunna). He further said that the Light of God in the heart of the believer is like the pure oil, which is about to illuminate (give light) even without fire touching it. As the believer learns the truth from the Holy Quran, his/her faith is reinforced, like the light of the olive oil when it is touched by fire; hence, "Light Upon Light."

In interpreting "Light Upon Light," Ibn 'Abbas said that it is a reference to good deeds of the believer, reflecting his/her faith in God. Mujahid and Al-Suddi, mAbpwt both, said that it means the Light of God and the light of the lamp, or the light of fire and the light of the oil, or the light of the Holy Quran and the light of faith together. Ubay Ibn Ka'b, mAbpwh, interpreted it as light in the believer's speech, deeds, death, and resurrection, as mentioned by Ibn Katheer.

In conclusion, Allah, praise to Him, is Light Upon Light. He is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. He is also the Light of guidance for His worshippers, through His Messages to them, which He completed by revealing the Holy Quran, through the Seal of His Messengers, Muhammed, pbbuh.  

***

***

Second, God's Physical Features

Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) is the One, the Eternal, whom none has ever been equal to, as stated in Surat Al-Ikhlas (112: 1-4). There is nothing like Him, as stated in Surat Al-Shoura (Chapter 42: 11).

 ۚ  ۖ  ۚ  ۖ  ( 42: 11).

The Originator of the Heavens and the Earth, (Allah), has made pairs for you from yourselves, and pairs of cattle, thereby multiplying (in the wombs of females). There is nothing like Him. He is The Hearer, The Seer  (Al-Shoura, 42: 11).

With that stated, several verses of the Holy Quran mention some physical features of Allah. Al-Tabari mentioned that the tradition of early Muslim scholars is to mention these physical features of God, as described in the Holy Quran and the 'Hadith, without trying to equate them with the physical features of humans. Here are some of them: [12]

1. Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has a Face, which illuminates (gives light to) the Throne, as interpreted by scholars, in Ayatul Kursi (The Verse of the Chair) above. Believers direct their prayers and good deeds to the Face of Allah, as in verses 2: 115, 2: 272, 30: 38, 30: 39, and 76: 9 of the Holy Quran. 

 ۚ     ( 2: 115).

( 2: 272).  

( 30: 38).

( 30: 39).

( 76: 9).

To Allah belong (the directions of) the sunrise and the sunset. Whichever (direction) you turn to, there is the Face of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Vast (and) Knowledgeable (Al-Baqara, 2: 115).

Whatever good you spend is for yourselves, (provided that) you give it seeking the Face of Allah. And whatever good you spend shall be repaid to you (in full), you shall not be treated unjustly (Al-Baqara, 2: 272).

And give to the kinsman his due, and to the needy, and to the destitute traveler. That is best for those who want the Face of Allah, and those are the winners (Al-Room, 30: 38)

That which you give in Zakat (charity), wanting the Face of Allah, those (amounts) will be multiplied many times (for you in rewards) (Al-Room, 30: 39).

'We feed you for the Face of Allah, we neither want a reward from you nor gratitude (Al-Inssan, 76: 9).

2. Some verses of the Holy Quran mention that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has a Throne to sit on, as follows;

ٰ  ۖ  ( 7: 54 ).

ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۚ ٰ  ۚ ( 10: 3).

Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days, then sat on the Throne (Al-A'araf, 7: 54).

Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days, then sat on the Throne, governing (His creation). There is no intercessor except by His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Will you not remember? (Younus, 10: 3).

3. The Verse of the Chair (2: 255), mentioned above, tells us that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, has a Chair to put His Feet on, as was also mentioned in the authentic 'Hadith.  [13]

4. The following verses tell us that Allah, praise to Him, has Hands, extending them with provision for His creations and with support for those who believe in Him. With His Hands, He gives or denies that which He wills for whom He wills. He has power over all things.

   ﴿ 3: 73﴾.

     ( 5: 64).

 ( 27: 63).

ٰ  ( 67: 1).

    ٰ ( 3: 26).

The bounty is in the Hand of Allah, He gives it to whomsoever He wills. Allah is Vast, Knowledgeable (Al-'Imran, 3: 73).

The Jews said: "The Hand of Allah is chained." It is their hands, which are chained, and they were cursed for what they said. Rather, His both Hands are extended (with provision), He spends as He wills (Al-Maeda, 5: 64).

And Who sends the winds bearing glad tidings between Both Hands of His Mercy (Al-Naml, 27: 63).

Blessed be He in whose Hand is the Kingdom, He is powerful over all things (Al-Mulk, 67: 1).

Say: 'O Allah, Owner of the Sovereignty (Power). You give the governance to whom You will and take the governance away from whom You will. You exalt whom You will and debase whom You will. In Your Hand is good. You have power over all things (Al-'Imran, 3: 26).

***

The three renowned Muslim scholars related three interpretations for Verse 3: 26, which mentioned the hand of Allah, praise to Him, as follows:

The first interpretation focused on stating that the good, power, and exaltedness are in the Hand of Allah. He gives or denies them to that which He wills. He took them out of the Children of Israel because they rejected God's message, which was delivered to them by Jesus Christ, peace be upon him. Instead, He exalted His Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, by giving him the final and complete Message of God to Humanity.

The second interpretation mentioned that the verse was about the Christians of Najran, in southern Arabia, who worshipped Jesus Christ as God, just because he showed miracles to the Children of Israel, to persuade them to believe in him as a Messenger of God. In this Verse, Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, is telling worshippers of Jesus that only God can exalt somebody like Jesus to perform such miracles, as He is powerful over all things.

The third interpretation was that the verse was revealed in response to a call by Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, who asked Allah, praise to Him, to support Muslims in conquering the Persian and Roman empires. The call was answered when the entire Persian empire was conquered by Muslims and the Persian Nation became a Muslim nation contributing to the spread of Islam in Asia. In addition, most of the Roman empire was conquered by Muslims, particularly eastern (Levant), western (Spain), and southern (North African) Mediterranean coasts. Only the northern Mediterranean coasts stayed under the Roman rule until the rise of the Ottoman empire, when Greece and major parts of eastern Europe became under the Muslim Ottoman rule. 

5. Many verses of the Holy Quran state that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, hears and sees. He is also described as Hearer and Seer, as well as The Hearer and The Seer.

There are 47 verses in the Holy Quran, in which Allah is described as Samee'  (Hearer)." There are 20 verses which describe Him as Al-Samee'a (The Hearer).

There are 42 verses in the Holy Quran, in which Allah is described as "Baseer," (Seer). There are three verses which describe Him as Al-Baseer (The Seer). These are Al-Isra (17 :1), Al-Shoura (42 : 11), and Ghafir (40 : 20).

In the following three verses, Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, states that He hears and sees:

 ۖ ٰ  ( 20: 46).

 ۘ  ﴿ 3: 181.

 ۚ  ( 58: 1).

(Allah) said: Do not fear (the Pharaoh), I am with you: I hear and see (everything) (Ta Ha, 20: 46).

Allah has heard the taunt of those who said: "Allah is poor and we are rich!" We shall write (record) what they said and (write) their killing of the prophets without a right (to do so), and We shall say (to them): "Taste the torture of the (Scorching) Fire (Al-'Imran, 3: 181).

Allah has heard the saying (statement) of (the woman) who argues with you about her husband; and she complains (in prayer) to Allah; and Allah hears your dialogue. Indeed, Allah is Hearer and Seer (Al-Mujadalah, 58: 1).  

6. The human being has a face, eyes, ears, hands, and feet as his/her Creator has His own, which do not necessarily look like those of humans. Thus, Allah, praise to Him, created humans in the best image, as stated in Verse 95: 4.

  ( 95: 4).

Surely We created the human (being) in the Best Image (Al-Teen, 95: 4).

Al-Tabari and Ibn Katheer interpreted the last word of the verse, "Taqweem," as "Soorah," the accurate translation of which is "image." Al-Qurtubi also interpreted it as image but added that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, created human beings on His Image, the Best Image. They have face, eyes, ears, hands, and feet, as He has. They also have some of His traits, which are blown into them from His Spirit, such as justice, mercy, and compassion. He distinguished them from His other creations on Earth by enabling them of walking upright, speaking, knowing right and wrong, and having the capability to choose between them. The same meaning came also in verse 64: 3, as follows:

ۖ ( 64: 3).

He created the heavens and the Earth in truth and made your images in the best of images, and to Him is the (final) destination (Al-Taghabun, 64: 3).

***

***  

Third, why did Allah create humans, on Earth?

 

In this section, there is an attempt to explain why Allah, praise to Him, has created humans, in their lower life on Earth, and what He wants for them.

1. We learn from the Holy Quran that Allah has created the Jinn and humans for the sole purpose of worshipping Him (51: 56). He also told us that we worship Him by performing the five mandatory ways of worship (the proclamation of faith, prayers, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage) and by practicing righteousness (doing good deeds). Thus, worshipping Allah aims at benefiting the worshipper first, then his/her family, community, society, and humanity, in this lower life and in the hereafter, as was discussed in the second part of this book. [14]

He mentioned that He did not create us in vain (23: 115), or playfully. Rather, the creation of the heavens, the Earth, and those in between was a serious endeavor (44: 38-39). In return, He wants His intelligent creations, jinn and humans, to worship Him by observing His commands, which benefits them, as we read in the Holy Quran verses and the Prophets Hadiths. [15]

***  

Allah, praise to Him, explained righteousness (doing good deeds) in three terms: Bir, Taqwa, and Ihsan. Bir (Righteousness) is (practiced by the) one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets, and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask (for help), and for freeing slaves; (and who) establishes prayer and gives zakat; (those who) fulfill their promise when they promise; and (those who) are patient in poverty, hardship, and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the Muttaqoon (righteous) (Al-Baqara, 2: 177).

Thus, it is noteworthy that in verse 2: 177, the term of Bir includes all articles of Iman (faith), two articles (requirements) of Islam (prayer and giving zakat), and some aspects of Ihsan (keeping promises, patience, and truthfulness.). Another observation is that those who do these Bir deeds are also Muttaqoon (righteous).  This means that the Bir good deeds are also the same Taqwa good deeds but performed from two different perspectives. Bir is doing good deeds in obedience to Allah, praise to Him, for the love of doing them, and for knowing of their benefits for the individual, family, and society. Taqwa is also doing the same good deeds, in obedience to Allah, praise to Him, but to avoid His punishment.

There are many verses in the Holy Quran, which mention this meaning for the term of Taqwa. It refers to Gods anger and His punishment (5: 2), avoidance of punishment in the Fire (3: 131), and avoidance of trials or ordeal (8: 25). [16]

The third Quran term for doing good deeds (righteousness) is Ihsan, which is a derivative of the Arabic verb ahsana (to do things better). As such, it means saying and doing as best as a person can, which is possible by following Gods commands, avoiding His prohibitions, and calling for His sake.

The Holy Quran tells us that Allah commands Ihsan (16: 90), in words and deeds (41: 33), commands good treatment of parents (17: 23), praises those who practice Ihsan by declaring His love for them (2: 195), assures them that they should not be afraid or sad (2: 112), and promises them with great rewards in His Paradise (5: 85). [17]

Many verses of the Holy Quran tell us that Ihsan is represented by spending in the way of Allah and by not committing self-inflected harm (2: 195), restraint and forgiveness (3: 134), by not corrupting the Earth and by calling on Allah, looking for His rewards and for avoidance of His punishment (7: 56), by being sincere in following Gods commands and teachings of His Messenger (9: 91), by patience (11: 115), by practicing Taqwa (22: 37), and by fighting for His sake ((29: 69). [18] 

The Prophet, pbbuh, provided us with examples on the practical application of the three terms. In one Hadith, he said that Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you are seeing him, and while you do not see Him, He truly sees you. Thus, I'hsan is saying and doing only that which pleases Allah and conforms to His commands. This is the level of righteousness, perfection, as well as doing and saying the ultimate good for the sake of goodness and righteousness, to the persons best knowledge and ability.

In another Hadith, he said that he was sent to complete (teach people) the best of manners. In a third Hadith, he defined Taqwa, as truth of the tongue, purity of the heart from sinning, transgression, or envy. It is good manners and love of the latter life more than this lower life. In a fourth Hadith, he said: Do not envy, desert (avoid), hate, plot against each other, or do ill outbidding. Be worshippers of Allah and brothers. A Muslim is a brother to a Muslim, he does not transgress on him, let him down, or despise him. Taqwa is here (pointing to his chest). Despising a Muslim brother is an evil act. It is prohibited to violate a Muslims blood, wealth, and honor (women). [19]

***

2. If we think about effects of performing the mandatory ways of worship (Ibadat) and doing good deeds (Bir, Taqwa, and Ihsan) on people, it becomes clear that these are ways to train humans to be good beings during their lower life on Earth,  to prepare them to be better beings in the latter life. Thus, they become qualified to inhabit Gods universe and lead an everlasting life in His Paradise, which is as wide as heavens and Earth, ready to house the righteous ones.

The Holy Quran tells us that Allah has created heavens and Earth as well as death and life, to try people and see who is the best in deeds? (11: 7, 67: 1-2). He made heavens and Earth, day and night, as well as the sun, the moon, and the stars for the benefit of humans (35: 13, 16: 12). Further, He encouraged jinn and humans to travel in space and attempt to enter regions of heavens (55: 33). He declared that He prepared Paradise, which is as wide as heavens and Earth, for the righteous ones, those who practice Taqwa (3: 133). We are also told that those who believe and do good deeds will enter gardens (of Paradise), leading an everlasting life therein (4: 57). Those are the best of humans (58: 7-8). However, those who disbelieve in God's verses (4: 56), and disobey Allah and His Messenger, will be doomed in the Hellfire, forever (72: 22-23). [20]

The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, gave us examples about the categories of people who are going to end up in Paradise or the Fire. He said that while the weak and the needy will gain the mercy of Allah and enter His Paradise, the tyrants and the arrogant ones will gain His discontent and enter the Fire. In another Hadith, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said that when believers are cleared from the Fire, they get out to a bridge between the Fire and Paradise, where they are held accountable for injustices they commit against each other, during their lower life. After their refinement and purification over there, they will be permitted to enter Paradise. In a third Hadith, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said that ultimately people will enter Paradise from any of its eight gates, if they proclaim that there is no other god but Allah and Muhammed is the worshipper of Allah and His Messenger, as well as Eissa (Jesus) is the worshipper of Allah, His Messenger, His Word He threw to Maryam, and a Spirit of Him. [21]

***

3. Thus, by commanding humans to perform the mandatory ways of worship and doing good deeds, Allah, praise to Him, wants their good in their lower life and in the hereafter. While He is in no need for their worship (35: 15), He rejoices their righteousness (22: 37), which is based on their free will (76: 3, 90: 10). He has known that many humans are going to be good, in words and deeds, as He told His skeptical angels: I know that which you do not know (2: 30).

Moreover, Allah, praise to Him, does not like to punish people if they are grateful and believe in Him (4: 147). He even may not pay attention to them if they do not call on Him (25: 77). If He holds people accountable for their wrongdoing during their lower life, He will destroy them, but He is delaying their punishment (16: 61). If people disbelieve, after their belief in Allah, He will replace them with other people who love Him, and He loves them (5: 54). [22]

The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, told us about some categories of believers, whom He loves because they have some of His characteristics. He is generous and giver. He likes high manners and hates low behaviors. In another Hadith, he said that Allah likes it for a person to do his/her good deed as perfect as possible. In a third Hadith, he said that the true good (rewards for a persons work) is that of the hereafter (not that which one receives in the lower life). [23]

***

4. In conclusion, the human caliphate (mandate to rule over Earth) is an honor bestowed on humans by their Creator, praise to Him (17: 70). It is also a piece of evidence that He trusts them to be responsible and successful in the test of their lower life (33: 72-73, 11: 61). Such success leads many of them to become good beings by choice, which qualifies them to be able to inhabit Gods Paradise, in His vast universe, in the hereafter (7: 43). [24]   

To encourage Muslims to be successful in their lower life test, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, advised them to lead a life of a stranger or a traveler. He also advised them to do the best of deeds, which would benefit them most in the hereafter. These are a continuing charity, such as an endowment, knowledge which benefits people, and leaving behind good children, who supplicate to Allah to make them of the people of Paradise. The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, also gave believers the glad tiding that their Lord has prepared for them that which no eye has ever seen, no ear has every heard, and no human has ever been able to imagine about the pleasures of their life in His Paradise. [25]

***

***

Fourth, the Good (Most Beautiful) Names of Allah (Full List)

This section of the Chapter contains a list of the Good Names of Allah, which were identified literally and directly from the Holy Quran. Each name is referenced by citing some of the verses in which it is mentioned. Then, it is explained according to the meanings understood from the verses, including the interpretations of the three renowned Muslim scholars, Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer. Moreover, further explanations of the meanings of the Names were sought from the books of two earlier scholars, Al-Ghazali and Al-Qurtubi, as well as from two contemporary scholars, Al-Sharawi and Al-Qaradhawi. Finally, a list of the Good Names of Allah is reached, on the basis of literal description of Allah, praise to Him, of Himself. [26]

Some translators translated the "Good Names of Allah" also as the "Most Beautiful Names of Allah."

There are many websites in Arabic and English which mention, list, or translate the Good Names of Allah. Some Arabic websites provide citations for the verses which mention them, as well as interpretations and explanations of their meanings. Others just mention one-word translation for each name without interpretations or explanations. Almost all of these websites use the disputed list, which was attached to the Hadith narrated by Abu HUrayrah, mAbpwh. That list combines some of the Good Names of Allah (which are stated clearly in the Holy Quran) with God's Attributes, which are deducted or concluded as a result of mentioning verbs or adjectives related to Him.

This author is providing readers with the following list, which is different from the above-mentioned lists, in that it only includes the Names that are mentioned as descriptions of Allah of Himself, clearly and directly in the Holy Quran, with citations for some of the verses they are mentioned in.

The following list includes 147 Good Names of Allah, which represent His traits and capabilities, as mentioned directly in Holy Quran, and identified by this author. Some of them are traits of Allah, praise to Him, showing His capabilities and His deeds. Others are variants based on the same verb root, but they are all authentic and directly mentioned in the Holy Quran. Most of them are presented as a singular- word Name, but the list also includes Names composed of several words, as well as compound-word Names. Thus, this list includes more of the Good Names of Allah than the traditional lists.

This is followed by a presentation of a shortened list of 99 Good Names of Allah, in response to the Hadith of Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, in which he encouraged us to search for and study them. The list includes 81 one-word Names and 18 Names composed of several or compound words, as mentioned in the Holy Quran.

This short list is selected by this author from the larger list mentioned in the fourth and sixth sections, after the exclusion of other Names, which are derivatives of the same verb. For example, Al-Raheem (the Merciful) was selected to represent other Names, which are derived from the same root verb (Arham Al-Rahimeen, Khayr Al-Rahimeen, and Dhu Al-Rahma). Al-Khaliq (the Creator) was selected to represent Al-Khallaq and Ahsan Al-Khaliqeen. Al-Ghafoor (the Perpetual in Forgiveness) was selected to represent Ghafir Al-Dhanb, Al-Ghaffar, Khayr Al-Ghafireen, Dhu Al-Maghfirah, Wasiu Al-Maghfirah, and Ahlul Maghfirah. Al-Qahhar (the Constantly Subduer) was selected to represent Al-Qahir. Al-Rab (the Lord) was selected to represent the other ten Names, at the end of the list, which are derived from the same root verb.

However, this author does not claim that his list is exclusive. Actually, he encourages other researchers to study this list and to continue the work of finding and studying more of the Good Names of Allah. 

Allah, praise to Him, mentions His Good Names and invites us in using them on calling upon Him, as in the following four verses:  

( 7: 180).

( 17: 110).

( 20: 8).

( 59: 24). 

To Allah belong the Good Names, so call upon Him by them, and keep away from those who distort His names. They will be punished for what they do (Al-A'araf, 7: 180).

Say: "Call upon Allah, or call upon Al-Ra'hman (The Beneficent), whatever (name) you call upon Him, to Him belong the Good Names (Al-Issra, 17: 110).

Allah! There is no (other) god but He. To Him belong the Good Names (Ta Ha, 20: 8).

He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner. To Him belong the Good Names (Al-'Hashr, 59: 24).  

***

Likewise, Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh) told us to use the Good Names of Allah, in calling upon Him. He added that we only know some of these Names, which are revealed in the Holy Quran. However, there are others, which have not been revealed to us.

: " ... ."

Companion Abdullah Bin Massaud, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: O Allah Im asking you with every one of your Names, that with which you called Yourself, or You revealed in Your Book, or You taught one of Your Creations, or that which is unknown to us because You kept to Yourself. Im asking you to make the Quran the spring (pleasure) of my heart, the light of my chest, the end of my sadness, and the going of my negative thinking about the future.  [27]

In another 'Hadith, the Prophet, pbbuh, urged Muslims to account for (search for, list, study, and observe) ninety-nine Good Names of Allah, encouraging them to know their Lord, to win His contentment, and consequently His everlasting Paradise. In that Hadith, the Prophet's Companion Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Prophet, pbbuh, said:

" ." 

To Allah, there are ninety-nine names, one hundred minus one. Whoever accounts for (search for, list, study, and observe) them will enter Paradise. Allah is One. He likes this witr characteristic (The witr is an odd number, such as ninety-nine - Author's explanation). [28]

Early Islamic scholars, like Al-Ghazali, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Taymiyah, as well as contemporary ones, like Al-Sharawi, Al-Qaradhawai, and Al-Qa'htani, may Allah reward all of them for their great efforts, provided a useful explanation for this Hadith. They said that it does not mean that Allah has only ninety-nine Good Names. Rather, the Prophet, pbbuh, wanted to encourage Muslims to search for the Names of Allah, learning about them, and observing the teachings learned from them. Further, they mentioned that the Hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, to which there was an attached list of ninety-nine claimed Good Names, was not a Sahih (correct) Hadith. The eminent Hadith scholar, Al-Albani, supported this statement by concluding that it is a weak Hadith, when the list is attached to it, but it is a Sahih Hadith without it. [29]

There are four apparent pieces of evidence, which explain the weakness in the authentication of the Hadith attributed to Companion Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh. The first is that there is inconsistency in the narration of the two versions of the Hadith, which are different from each other in changing some names and in the alternatives given to the changed ones.

Al-Qurtubi followed Al-Ghazali in mentioning opinions of the Hadith scholars preceding them about the likelihood that the claimed list was gathered by the narrator of the Hadith, not the saying of the Prophet, pbbuh. In addition, the authors of the two Sahih Sunna books, Al-Bukhari and Muslim, did not include the list of names with the Abu Hurayra Hadith. Ibn Taymiya added his explanatory opinion that the ninety-nine names were not mentioned in a Sahih (correct, authenticated) Hadith, attributed to the Prophet, pbbuh. The most commonly known among people is the Hadith recorded by Al-Tirmidhi, as narrated by Al-Waleed Bin Muslim, who narrated it from Shuayb, who narrated it from Abu Hamza. The Hadith keepers (scholars) say that this addition (the list of names) is what Al-Waleed Bin Muslim gathered from his teachers (Hadith scholars). The other version of the Hadith, which was recorded by Ibn Maja is weaker than this one (which was recorded by Al-Tirmidhi).

The second piece of evidence, which explains the weakness of the Hadith, is that there are Good Names of Allah, which are mentioned in the Holy Quran but not included in the claimed list. Examples of such names are Al-Mawla (the Protector), Al-Naseer (the Supporter), Al-Ghalib (the Predominant), Al-Qreeb (the Nearby), Al-Rab, Al-Nassir (the Strong Supporter), Shadeed Al-iqab (the Severe in Penalty), Qabil Al-twab (the Acceptant of Repentance), Ghafir Al-Tdhanb (the Forgiver of Sin), and Mukhrij Al-Mayyit mina Al-Hayy (Bringer of the Dead from the Living).

The third piece of evidence, which explains the weakness of the Hadith, is that the claimed list of names attached to it contains 25 of names, which are not mentioned literally in the Holy Quran. These are Al-Qabidh (the Gripper), Al-Basit (the Even-handed), Al-Khafidh (the Bringer of Some People Down), Al-Rafi (the Raiser of Some People Up), Al-Muiz (the Bestower of Might), Al-Mudhil (the Humiliator), Al-Hakam (the Judge), Al-Adl (the Just), Al-Jaleel (the Majestic), Al-Baith (the Resurrector), Al-Mubdi (the Beginner), Al-Mueed (the Repeater of His Creation), Al-Mumeet (the One Who causes people to die), Al-Wajid (the Finder), Al-Majid (the Glorious), Al-Muqaddim (the One Who causes things to happen early), Al-Mu-akhir (the One Who causes things to be delayed), Al-Waali (the Overseeing Ruler), Al-Muqsit (the One Who treats people fairly), Al-Mughni (the One Who enables some people to become rich), Al-Mani (the One Who can deny something to somebody), Al-Dhaar (the One Who can cause harm to somebody), Al-Naafi (the One Who can cause benefit to somebody), Al-Rasheed (the Good Guide), and Al-Saboor (the Patient).

The fourth piece of evidence, which explains the weakness of the Hadith, is that including a list of Names in the Hadith contradicts with the advice of the Prophet, pbbuh, to Muslims, in the same Hadith, to account for (search for, list, study, and observe) ninety-nine of them, as he would have already provided such names. [30]

Search Criteria for the Good Names of Allah

Allah, praise to Him, told to us that He has Good Names, mentioned in many verses of the Holy Quran, and He advised us to call on Him with such Names (Al-Aaraf, 7: 180; Al-Issra, 17: 110; Ta-Ha, 20: 8). He also listed eighteen of them directly in verses 59: 22-24, as follows:

ٰ ۖ ۖ ٰ ﴿٢٢﴾ ٰ ۚ ﴿٢٣﴾ ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 59: 22-24).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, Knower of the Unknown and the Known. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful. (22) He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the Sovereign, the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him. (23) He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the Good Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the Earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (24) (Al-Hashr, 59: 22-24).

The Names which Allah, praise to Him, willed to mention to us in His Holy Book, are the ones which we can understand and comprehend. However, He did not mention His other Names, because we may not be able to understand them. In particular, this applies to His Names which may describe His knowledge, His planning, and His will in other parts of His vast dominion, which includes the seven heavens, the seven earth-like planets, the Chair, and the Throne, as well as whoever inhabits them. In addition, His knowledge is absolute, about what was, what is, and what will be, while the knowledge of His creations is limited in quantity, quality, time, place, and condition.

It follows that we should keep His Names as mentioned in the Holy Quran and the Sahih Hadiths. We should not make any changes to them, in observance to the command of Allah in verse 7: 180, mentioned above, to avoid what the polytheists did centuries after Ibrahim and Ismail, peace be upon them. They called their idols Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat, which are deviated changes from His true Names of Allah, Al-Azeez, and Al-Manan.

Some researchers who wrote about this subject did not pay attention to this command of Allah, as they would be focused on accounting for the largest number of His Names in the Holy Quran and the Sunna. An example of these researchers was Ibn Al-Wazeer (died in 822 Hijriya, 1419 AD), may Allah reward him for his good-intentioned work on the subject. He compiled a list of 155 names, which he claimed to include clearly and literally mentioned names of Allah in the Holy Quran, except one. This was Al-Aaz (the Rarest in Might), which he deducted from verse 8 of Surat Al-Munafiqoon (Chapter 63) of the Holy Quran. The truth is that his list includes 22 names which have not been mentioned clearly and literally as texts in the Holy Quran.[31]

Other researchers who wrote about the subject had difficulty in classifying the Names of Allah, as adjectives or Names. The difficulty is due to the fact that these are traits of Allah, which classifies them as adjectives, according to the Arabic grammatical rules. So, such researchers would wonder, why would Allah, praise to Him, refer to them as His Names when these are His traits, which are grammatically known as adjectives?

It is amazing that these researchers missed noticing that the Holy Quran descended in the Arabic language, known to Arabs at the time of revelation, including their various tribal dialects. However, the science of Arabic grammar started after the death of the Prophet, pbbuh, in response to the necessity of teaching Arabic to new Muslims everywhere, to be able to understand the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Messenger.

So, it was the Arab grammarians who divided speech into nouns, verbs, and prepositions. Then, they divided nouns into common names, adjectival names, and verbal names. Their work started with Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du-ali, and Al-Khalil Bin Ahmed, climaxed with Sibawayh, Al-Mazini, and Ibn Al-Sakeet, and was refined by other grammarians after them, until the sixth Hijri Century. [32]

Thus, when Allah, praise to Him, referred to His traits as His Names, instead of describing them as adjectival nouns, that was in harmony with how Arabs knew and understood their language, at the time of revelation. This means that the Holy Quran and the Hadith were two original sources of knowledge about the Arabic language, which preceded the science of Arabic grammar. Consequently, the work of Arab grammarians should have been dominated by these two sources, not the other way around, including the grammatical rules, which were reached to teach Arabic to Muslims everywhere.

It follows that even the Name Allah is an adjectival name. It means an Ilah (God). When it is preceded by the definite article (Al), it becomes Al-Ilah (The God), then a contracted form of the word is produced, which is Allah. However, Allah, praise to Him, has distinguished this Name, by referring to Himself with it, using the pronoun Ana (I), saying Ana Allah (Im Allah), in verses 20: 14, 27: 9, and 28: 30.

He also distinguished four other Names, by referring to Himself with them, using the pronoun Ana (I), saying that He is an Ilah (God), in verse 16: 2, Al-Ghafoor, Al-Raheem (the Forgiving, the Merciful), in verse 15: 49, and Rab (Lord), in verses 20: 12, 21: 92, and 23: 52.  [33]

Arab grammarians agreed that a word can be understood by two factors. The first is identified in relation to how it is pronounced, which leads to the classification of words to nouns, verbs, and prepositions. The second factor is described in relation to the meaning of a word, which is realized in the mind. Then, the meaning determines how the word is written and pronounced.  [34]

Further, they divided the three branches of the pronunciation factor into other sub-branches. Thus, they considered adjectives as a branch of nouns, mentioning that an adjective maybe a single word, or a verbal sentence, or a noun sentence (without a verb), or a phrase. 

They have added that it is possible to produce a group of words from one original linguistic source. For example, from the verb root (infinitive) dharaba (to beat), we can produce the subject, or the verbal noun dharib (beater), and another form of the subject, which amplifies its characteristic, such as midhrab (known as a beater, or a frequent beater).

In addition, they devised six tone scales, from which various verbal noun amplifying forms can be produced from the same root verb. So, from the root verb faala (to do), they devised the tone scales of fail, faeel, faool, faal, and mifal.  

Consequently, the Good Names of Allah are adjectival names or verbal names, whether expressed as one word or more. These Names can also be expressed as matching the most commonly expressed tone scale, fail, such as Malik, Qahir, Ghafir, and Shakir. These can also be expressed as matching the amplifying characteristic of the original verbal names, such as Raheem of Rahman; Maleek of Malik; Khallaq of Khaliq; Qah-har of Qahir; Allam and Aleem of Alim; Ghafoor of Ghafir; and Shakoor of Shakir (See the list below, for the meanings of these Names).

Al-Sharawi called for the importance of observing the Arabic spelling of the Good Names of Allah, strictly as mentioned in the Holy Quran, whether these are adjectival names or verbal names. He emphasized that there should be no deduction of new names for Allah, praise to Him, from His mentioned actions, such as Al-Mubtaly (the Tester) and Al-Maakir (the Planner against disbelievers), out of the two verbs ibtala (to test) and makara (planned against). He added that these adjectival names are related actions of Allah during this life, but there will be no testing or planning in the hereafter. This means that the Good Names of Allah should have the characteristic of applying to both this life and the hereafter, as His traits, praise to Him, are eternal and everlasting. Further, he argued against choosing one word to be a Name of Allah from a compound name or a phrase mentioned in the Holy Quran. Examples of such changed Names of Allah are Al-Shadeed (the Severe), Al-Qabil (the Acceptant), and Al-Ghafir (the Forgiver), which are reductions from Shadeed Al-Iqab (Severe in Penalty), Qabil Al-Tawb (Acceptant of Repentance), and Ghafir Al-Dhanb (Forgiver of Sin). In other words, the compound or phrasal Names of Allah should stay as mentioned in the Holy Quran, not to be changed or reduced to one word.

Thus, the Good Names of Allah, which have been accounted for in this book, have been mentioned literally in the Holy Quran as direct texts, and have been written in the longer list of 147 Names as they are in the Book of Allah, without any changes. The list does not contain other names, which may be attributed to Allah, praise to Him, such as verbal names, unique qualities denied to others, and deducted traits. Examples of these three categories of names are presented at the end of the longer list.

The shorter list of 99 Good Names of Allah was produced from the longer list by the selection of one Name of a group of Names which have the same root verb. For example, Al-Ghafoor (the Perpetual Forgiving) was selected to represent the other six names, which are derivatives of the same root verb ghafara (to forgive).

***

A List of the 147 Good Names of Allah, Which Are Mentioned Directly in the Holy Quran

The following is a list of the Good Names of Allah, which includes 147 Names this author has identified in the Holy Quran. However, there is no claim by this author that this is an exhaustive list. Other researchers are encouraged to continue the task of finding more of God's Names in the Holy Quran and their meanings, as their predecessors did before them.

In this list, each Name was documented by providing some of the verse numbers it was mentioned in. Then, an explanation of the Name meaning was given on the bases of its meaning in the verse context. This was followed by explanations provided by the three renowned interpreters. Finally, explanations were also provided from the formerly referred to books, which explain the Good Names of Allah and His Attributes.

It is noteworthy that knowledge about the Good Names of Allah can be applied to our everyday life. One way is calling on Allah by them, another way is being guided in our behaviors by the meanings of each Name, and a third way is including them in the names given to Muslim boys.

The word ('abd) is used as a prefix with one of Gods Names. It means "worshipper," as explained in Chapter 7. "Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves? Thus, "Abdullah" means "Worshipper of Allah," and "Abdul Ra'hman" means "Worshipper of The Beneficent" and so on. [35]

1. Allah: Allah (The God)    

"Allah" is the name which God has chosen for Himself, as stated in Verse 9 of Surat Al-Naml (Chapter 27), Verse 14 of Surat Taha (Chapter 20), and Verse 30 of Surat Al-Qassas (Chapter 28) of the Holy Quran (See the first section above for an extended explanation).

 

The word "Allah" means "The God," or "Al-Ilah" in Arabic. In addressing God, a Muslim may say in Arabic "Ilahi" (my God). However, Muslims usually refer to God with the definite article, Al, contracted with the noun it defines, to become Allah, thus addressing Him with "Ya Allah," which means "O Allah." 

This Good Name of God was mentioned in various forms in the Holy Quran 2,669 times. The Name of Allah, alone was mentioned 2,247 times in the verses and 113 times in the Basmalas, at the beginning of the Suras (Al-Tawba has no Basmala). It was also mentioned 309 times in other forms, as Allahumma: O Allah (5 times), Lillah: To Allah (143 times), Tallah: By Allah (9), Fallah: And Allah (6), Billah: By Allah (139), Falillah: And To Allah (6), Abillah: Of Allah (1). [36]

 Here are three verses, which mention the Name of "Allah" (1: 1), Allahumma (3: 26), and Lillah (57: 1), as examples:

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ ( 1: 1).

 

 

( 3: 26).

 ۖ   ( 57: 1). 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Fatiha, 1: 1).

 

Say, "O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty (Al-Imran, 3: 26).

Whatever is in the heavens and Earth exalts Allah, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-'Hadeed, 57: 1).

Al-Ghazali mentioned that this is the Greatest among all Names of Allah. Al-Qurtubi opined that the Greatest Name of Allah could be Al-Hayyu. However, he also argued that it could be Allah. He said that Allah has kept this Name exclusively to Himself and nobody else has been named as such. In addition, all of His other Names are attributes. Therefore, he concluded that the Name Allah maybe His Greatest Name. Nonetheless, Ibn Katheer opined that it maybe Al-Qayyoom. Al-Sharawi defined it as the Name which contains the divine attributes. 

One way to apply knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is calling on Him, saying Ya Allah or Allahumma (O, Allah). Another way is the acknowledgement that He is the only deity, Who is worthy of worship, obedience to His commands, and avoidance of His prohibitions. A third way is including this Greatest Name of God in a name given to Muslim boys, 'Abdullah. The word ('abd) is used as the prefix, meaning "worshipper." Thus, "Abdullah" means "Worshipper of Allah."

 

It is important to note that nobody should be named "Allah" or any of His divine names, such as creation-related names, or any of His Good Names with the definite article (Al), or His compound names. However, a boy can be named with one of the Good Names of Allah which convey a human capability, but without the definite article (Al), such as Maalik, Kareem, and 'Ali. 

*** 

2. Ilah: God      ٰ

"Ilah" means "God."

Al-Ilah (The God) is the Creator (Al-Muminoon, 23: 91), the Lord (Al-Saffat, 37: 4-5), and the One Who can harm and benefit (Al-Shuara, 26: 72-73).

Whoever knows Him as God, he/she behaves accordingly, depending on Him, praising Him in good times and running to Him for support in difficult times. This means that he/she acknowledges that He is worthy of worship, and he/she does so, in obedience to His command in verse 21: 25.

ٰ ( 21: 25).

And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no God (Ilah) except Me. So, worship Me" (Al-Anbiya, 21: 25).

When people recognize Him as their God, they depend on Him, and turn to Him when they are afraid or in need.

As a general term, the word Ilah (God) is mentioned 97 times, in the singular neutral form, in the Holy Quran. In 17 times, it is mentioned neutrally or as a reference to a false god. [37 ]

In 80 times, it is mentioned as a direct description of Allah or in relation to Him, as in verse 43: 84:

  ٰ ٰ ۚ ( 43: 84).

And it is Allah who is God (Ilah) in the heaven, and on the Earth (He is) God (Ilah). And He is the Wise, the Knowing (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 84).

It is also mentioned 11 times as Ilahukum (your God, for plural addressees), once as Ilahuna (our God), and once as Ilahaka (your God, for a singular addressee), as in verses 2: 133, 2: 163, and 29: 46, as follows:

ٰ ٰ ٰ ( 2: 133).

ٰ ٰ ۖ ٰ ٰ ( 2: 163).

ٰ ٰ ( 29: 46). 

(Children of Yacoop) said, "We will worship your God (Ilahaka) and the God (Ilah) of your fathers, Ibrahim (Abraham), and Ismail (Ishmael), and Isshaq (Isaac) - One God (Ilah). And we are Muslims (in submission) to Him" (Al-Baqara, 2: 133).

And your God (Ilahukum) is One God (Ilah). There is no (other) God (Ilah) except Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Baqara, 2: 163).

And our God (Ilahuna) and your God (Ilahukum) is One; and we are Muslims (in submission) to Him (Al-Ankaboot, 29: 46).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Ya Ilahi (O, My God), asking Him to extend His blessings, mercy, and favors to the caller, in this life and the hereafter. This Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Ilah, as the word ('abd) is used as the prefix, meaning "worshipper." Thus, "Abdul Ilah" means "Worshipper of the God." However, nobody should be named as "Ilah" (God), with or without the definite article (Al).

***

3. Ilah Al-Nas (pronounced as illah annas): God of the People      ٰ

"Ilah Al-Nas" means "God of the People."

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 114: 3. It means that He is the God, Who is worshipped by the responsible categories of His intelligent creations, namely angels in heavens, humans on Earth, and jinn in between, as we read in verses 43: 84, 26: 23-23, and 114: 1-6.

ٰ ٰ ۚ ( 43: 84).

﴿٢٣﴾ ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 26: 23-24).

ٰ

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤﴾ ﴿٥﴾ ﴿٦﴾ ( 114: 1-6).

And it is He Who is )the only( God (Ilah) in the heaven, and on the Earth (the only) God (Ilah). And He is the Wise, the Knowing (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 84).

Said Pharaoh, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) (Moussa, Moses) said, "The Lord of the heavens and the Earth and that between them, if you should be convinced." (24) (Al-Shuara, 26: 23-24).

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Say, "I seek refuge with the Lord of the people, (1) The Sovereign of the people. (2) The God (Ilah) of the people, (3) From the evil of the retreating whisperer - (4) Who whispers (evil) into the chests of the people - (5) From among the jinn and the (human) people." (6) (Al-Nas, 114: 1-6).

Seeking refuge with the Lord of the people, their God, cancels (does away with) the evil whispers of the Shaytan (Satan). This is because Allah, praise to Him, has promised that the Shaytan has no real power over the believers, who worship their Lord, Allah, and rely on Him, as stated in verses 17: 65 and 16: 99.

ۚ ٰ ( 17: 65).

ٰ ( 16: 99).

Indeed, over My worshippers, there is for you (the Shaytan) no authority. And sufficient is your Lord as Disposer of affairs (Al-Issra, 17: 65).

Indeed, there is for him (the Shaytan) no authority over those who have believed and rely upon their Lord (Al-Nahl, 16: 99).

Seeking refuge with Allah (God) is implemented by saying (I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan) and by reciting Surat Al-Nas (Chapter 114) of the Holy Quran. This is in obedience to Gods command in the first verse (114: 1) and in verse 7: 200, which states:

ۚ ( 7: 200).

And if an evil whispering comes to you from the Shaytan (Satan), then seek refuge with Allah. Indeed, He is Hearing and Knowing (Al-Aaraf, 7: 200).

Finally, part of Gods mercy on His worshippers is that He forgives them if they think about a Shaytans whispering, as long as they do not speak about it (to others) or act on it, as the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, told us in a Hadith. [38]   

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Ya Ilah Innas (O, God of the People), asking Him to have mercy on or shield the caller from the bad deeds of other people. Part of this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Ilah, (Worshipper of the God). However, nobody should be named as "Ilah" (God), with or without the definite article (Al), or Ilah innas (God of the People).

***

4. Al-Ra'hman (pronounced ar-ra'hman ): The Beneficent    ٰ

"Al-Ra'hman" is one of the divine names of Allah, which indicate His divineness (Godhood).

"Al-Ra'hman" is pronounced as "ar-ra'hman," due to the contraction of the definite article "Al" with the noun, deleting the letter (l) and replacing it with the first letter of the defined noun, ( r ).

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned 160 times in the Holy Quran, including Al-Basmala at the beginning of each Sura (Chapter). Without the Basmalas, Al-Rahman was mentioned 45 times in the Book of Allah. [39]

It was mentioned three times together with Al-Ra'heem, thus confirming God's mercy to His creations. These are verses 1: 1 (Al-Basmala), 2: 163, and 59: 22, as follows:

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ ( 1: 1). 

ٰ ٰ  ۖ  ٰ ٰ   ( 2: 163).

ٰ  ۖ   ۖ  ٰ ( 59: 22). 

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Fati'ha, 1: 1).

And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Baqara, 2: 163).

He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, Knower of the unseen and the witnessed. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-'Hashr, 59: 22).

Al-Ghazali mentioned that the mercy of Allah is total in nature, meaning that He has willed to provide His creations with what they need, and He did that. It is also general, in the sense that it is covering those who deserve and those who dont. The three renowned Islamic scholars, Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Katheer, said that Al-Ra'hman is a reference to God's mercy to all of His creations, as expressed in providing them with what they need. Ibn Katheer added that Al-Rahman means that He has extended His mercy to people by descending the Holy Quran on them and teaching them that which they needed to know about, for a successful lower life and a rewarding hereafter. Al-Sharawi summarized these meanings, saying: Al-Rahman is the One Who is Vast in His mercy to His creations, believers and disbelievers, during their lower life and in the hereafter.

By looking at verses 20: 5-6 and 25: 59, we find that this Good Name of Allah is mentioned in reference to the creation of the heavens, Earth, and that which is in between them. He is the Creator of angels in heavens, humans on Earth, and the jinn in between them. He showered all these creatures, as well as all living beings, with His mercy, by sustaining and providing for all of them. Thus, He benefits all of His creations.

Some translators translated "Al-Rahman" as The Merciful or "The Compassionate," both of which convey the correct meaning of His mercy to His creations. However, this author has found that "The Beneficent" is a more accurate translation on the basis of the above-mentioned explanation.

ٰ ٰ ﴿٥﴾ ٰ ﴿٦﴾ ( 20: 5-6).

ٰ ۚ ٰ ( 25: 59).

The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne established. (5) To Him belongs what is in the heavens and what is on the earth and what is between them and what is under the soil (6) (Ta-Ha, 20: 5-6).

He who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days and then established Himself above the Throne - the Most Merciful, so ask about Him one well informed (Al-Furqan, 25: 59).

One of the useful applications of knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by providing advice and guidance to those who are playful and disobedient, to return to the Rahman, so He would extend His mercy to them. It is also beneficial to call upon Him, saying: Ya Rahman (O, Allah, You are the Beneficent), and asking Him to include the caller and others among those who receive His mercy.

This Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to Muslim boys, Abdul-Rahman (Worshipper of the Beneficent). Girls can also be named as Rahma (mercy), which conveys a relationship to this Good Name of Allah. However, nobody should be named as "Al-Rahman" (the Beneficent), or Rahman (Beneficent), with or without the definite article (Al) because only Allah has this trait and capability, to benefit all of His creations.

***

5. Al-Ra'heem (pronounced as ar-ra'heem): The Merciful    

 

"Al-Raheem is  pronounced as , ar-ra'heem, as the definite article "Al" is contracted with the noun, deleting the letter ( l ) and replacing it with the first letter of the defined noun, ( r ).

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned 227 times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article and without it, including Al-Basmala at the beginning of each Sura (Chapter). Without the Basmalas, Al-Raheem was mentioned 114 times in the Book of Allah (as Surat Al-Tawba has no Basmala).

 

This Good Name of Allah, "Al-Ra'heem," means The Merciful. It is an expression of God's attribute of mercy, with which He showers His creations, in His vast dominium. This Name also refers to His extra mercy and care to the believers, in this life and in the hereafter, as explained by the renowned Islamic scholars, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Katheer, and as summarized by Al-Sha'rawi, who said that "Al-Ra'heem" is the giver of rewards which are many times more than the good deeds.

 

Realizing that He is Al-Raheem (The Merciful), Muslims constantly ask Him for His Mercy on themselves, and on the loved ones, whether living with them or deceased, encouraged by His statement about that attribute in verse 33: 43, as follows:

ۚ ( 33: 43).

It is He who confers blessing upon you, and His Angels pray (to Him to do so), that He may bring you out from (various degrees of) darkness into the light. And He is, to the believers, Merciful (Al-Ahzab, 33: 43).

The Name of Al-Raheem (The Merciful) is mentioned alone three times only, in verses 4: 29, 17: 66, and 33: 43. Otherwise, it is mentioned together with another Good Name of Allah in each verse, which helps us understand His mercy to the believers. Thus, the Name of Al-Raheem (The Merciful) was mentioned together with Al-Rahman (The Beneficent) in each Basmala, which precedes every Sura (Chapter) of the Holy Quran, as a confirmation of Gods mercy for His creations. This is conveying to them that the Holy Quran, which was descended on the Final Messenger, Muhammed, pbbuh, is Gods Message and Mercy to the Worlds, as stated in verses 21: 107 and 2: 163.

( 21: 107).

ٰ ٰ ۖ ٰ ٰ ( 2: 163).

And We have not sent you, (O Muhammad), except as a mercy to the worlds (Al-Anbiya, 21: 107).

And your god is one God. There is no other god except Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Baqara, 2: 163).

The Name of Al-Raheem (The Merciful) was also mentioned together with Al-Ghafoor (The Forgiving), in verse 15: 49, to convey the meaning of forgiving sins of believers, as an expression of mercy to them. Moreover, it came together with Al-Tawwab (The Acceptant of Repentance), in verse 2: 160. It was mentioned with Al-Ra-oof (The Kind) in verse 57: 9, with Al-Aziz (The Exalted in Might) in verse30: 5, with Al-Barr (The Source of Goodness) in verse 52: 28, and with Al-Wadood (The Affectionate, The Loving) in verse 11: 90, as follows:

( 15: 49).

ٰ ۚ ( 2: 160).

ٰ ۚ ( 57: 9).

﴿٤١﴾ ۚ ﴿٤٢﴾ ( 44: 42).

ۖ ( 52: 28).

ۚ ( 11: 90).

(O Muhammed), inform My worshippers that I am the Forgiving, the Merciful (Al-Hijr, 15: 49).

Except for those who repent, and correct themselves, and make evident (what they concealed). Those, I will accept their repentance, and I am the Acceptant of Repentance, the Merciful (Al-Baqara, 2: 160).

It is He, who sends down upon His worshipper (Muhammad) verses of clear evidence, that He may bring you out from (the degrees of) darkness into the light. And indeed, Allah is to you Kind and Merciful (Al-Hadeed, 57: 9).

Except those [believers] on whom Allah has mercy. Indeed, He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful (Al-Dukhan, 44: 42).

Indeed, we used to supplicate to Him before. Indeed, it is He who is the Source of Goodness and Kindness, the Merciful" (Al-Toor, 52: 28).

And ask forgiveness of your Lord and then repent to Him. Indeed, my Lord is Merciful and Affectionate (Loving) (Hood, 11: 90).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by showing mercy to others who need it, through providing them with what a person can provide, such as financial assistance, making efforts, or giving advice. It is useful also to call upon Allah, with this Name, addressing him: Ya Raheem (O, Allah, the Merciful), asking Him to extend His mercy on the caller, and others.

This Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Raheem (Worshipper of the Merciful). A boy can also be named as "Ra'heem" (merciful), without the definite article (Al), as humans have the capability of being merciful. Likewise, girls can have this trait in their names. Thus, one of the common female Islamic names in relation to this Good Name of Allah is Rahma (mercy).

Moreover, living up to the meanings of this Name means treating Gods creations with mercy, kindness, and care as possible. This includes humans and animals in general, as well as believers, the weak, and the young, in particular.

***

6. Ar'hamu Al-Ra'himeen (pronounced as ar'hamur ra'himeen): The Most Merciful Among the Merciful    

People may have mercy on each other, but Allah is more Merciful than any of His Creations. So, for us to supplicate for His mercy, it is best to invoke His Good Name of Arhamu Al-Rahimeen (The Most Merciful Among the Merciful).

This Name was mentioned four times in the Holy Quran. In verse 7: 151, Moussa (Moses), peace be upon him (pbuh), is supplicating to Allah, to admit him and his brother into His Mercy, and to forgive them. This happened when Moussa returned to find his people worshipping the Calf. He was afraid of Gods anger and punishment. Therefore, he supplicated to Him, using His attribute of being Arhamu Al-Rahimeen (The Most Merciful Among the Merciful).

In verse, 12: 64, Yacoob (Jacob), pbuh, is invoking this Good Name of Allah, to get the maximum mercy and protection to his son, Binyameen. He was distrustful of his sons who did not protect their brother, Yousuf (Joseph) before.

In verse 12: 92, Yousuf (Joseph), pbuh, is supplicating to Allah, to forgive his brothers, for that which they did to him, as He is Arhamu Al-Rahimeen. In verse and 21: 83, Ayoob (Job), pbuh, is supplicating to the The Most Merciful Among the Merciful, to heal him of his disease.

ۖ ( 7: 151).

 

ٰ ۖ ۖ ( 12: 64).

 

ۖ ۖ ( 12: 92).

 

ٰ ( 21: 83).

 

(Moses) said, "My Lord, forgive me and my brother and admit us into Your mercy, for You are the most merciful of the merciful" (Al-Aaraf, 7: 151).

 

He said, "Should I entrust you with him except [under coercion] as I entrusted you with his brother before? But Allah is the best guardian, and He is the most merciful of the merciful" (Yousuf, 12: 64).

 

He said, "No blame will there be upon you today. Allah will forgive you; and He is the most merciful of the merciful" (Yousuf, 12: 92).

 

And (mention) Job, when he called to his Lord, "Indeed, adversity has touched me, and you are the Most Merciful of the merciful" (Al-Anbiya, 21: 83).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: "Ya Ar'hamu Ar-Ra'himeen (O, the Most Merciful Among the Merciful), asking Him to extend His mercy on the caller, and others. Nobody should be named with this Good Name of Allah, as only He is the Most Merciful among those of His creations who have this trait.

However, part of this Good Name of Allah, Al- Raheem, can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Raheem (Worshipper of the Merciful). A boy can also be named as "Ra'heem" (merciful), without the definite article (Al), as humans have the capability of being merciful. Likewise, girls can have this trait in their names. Thus, one of the common female Islamic names in relation to this Good Name of Allah is Rahma (mercy).  

***

7. Khayr Al-Ra'himeen (pronounced as khayrur ra'himeen): The Best of the Merciful     

 

Khayr Al-Ra'himeen means The Best of the Merciful.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in the same context of Surat Al-Muminoon (Chapter 23), verses 109 and 118.

 

In verse 23: 109, Allah, praise to Him, tells us that on the Last Day, there will be a category of believers, who worshipped Him during their lower life, and who used to call upon Him for His forgiveness and His mercy, addressing him as Khayr Al-Ra'himeen (The Best of the Merciful). These will be among the winners of an everlasting life in His Paradise.

 

By contrast, there will be a category of the losers, who will be everlasting in the Hell Fire. This will be their punishment for their disbelief of Allah as well as for ridiculing and laughing at the patient believers, who used to address their Lord as Khayr Al-Ra'himeen (The Best of the Merciful), when they would ask for His forgiveness and His mercy, as mentioned in verses 23: 103-111).

 

Then, Allah, praise to Him, concludes the Sura (Chapter) with a confirmation that believers need to call upon Him for forgiveness and mercy, with His Good Name of Khayr Al-Ra'himeen (The Best of the Merciful).

( 23: 109).

( 23: 118).

Indeed, there was a party of My worshippers, who said: 'Our Lord, we have believed. So, forgive us and have mercy upon us, and You are the Best of the Merciful' (Al-Muminoon, 23: 109).

And (O Muhammed), say, "My Lord, forgive (us) and have mercy (upon us), and You are the Best of the Merciful" (Al-Muminoon, 23: 118).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: "Ya Khayru Ar-Ra'himeen (O, the Best Merciful Among the Merciful), asking Him to extend His mercy on the caller, and others. Nobody should be named with this Good Name of Allah, as only He is the Most Merciful among those of His creations who have this trait.

However, part of this Good Name of Allah, Al- Raheem, can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Raheem (Worshipper of the Merciful). A boy can also be named as "Ra'heem" (merciful), without the definite article (Al), as humans have the capability of being merciful. Likewise, girls can have this trait in their names. Thus, one of the common female Islamic names in relation to this Good Name of Allah is Rahma (mercy).  

***

8. Dhu Al-Ra'hma (pronounced as dhul ra'hma): The Possessor (Source) of Mercy     

"Dhu Al-Ra'hma" means the One Who is the Possessor (Source) of Mercy for all of His creations, praise to Him.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned in the Holy Quran twice, with definite article (Al), and once without it. In verse 6: 133, our Lord, praise to Him, says that He is in no need of His creations to worship Him. However, because He is the Possessor (Source) of Mercy, He has not caused the disobedient and oppressive humans to disappear from the face of the Earth, while He is capable of doing that and of replacing them with others. In verse 18: 58, Allah, praise to Him, reminds us that due to His forgiveness and mercy, He has not hastened punishment for the obstinate, who refuse the signs of their Lord, in this life. Rather, He has willed to delay their punishment till the Day of Reckoning, giving them the opportunity to believe in Him and to ask for His forgiveness, during this life. In verse, 6: 147, Allah, praise to Him, tells His Messenger, pbbuh, to say to the disbelievers that the mercy of Allah is vast, waiting for them if they believe and ask for it. However, if they insist on their disbelief, they will be inevitably punished, in the hereafter.

ۚ ( 6: 133).

ۖ ۚ ( 18: 58).

( 6: 147).

And your Lord is the Free of need, the Possessor of Mercy. If He wills, he can do away with you and give succession after you to whomever He wills, just as He produced you from the descendants of another people (Al-Anam, 6: 133).

And your Lord is the Forgiving, the Possessor of Mercy. If He were to impose blame upon them for what they earned, He would have hastened for them the punishment. Rather, for them is an appointment from which they will never find an escape (Al-Kahf, 18: 58).

So, if they disbelieve you, (O Muhammad), say, "Your Lord is a Possessor of Vast Mercy; but His punishment cannot be repelled from the people who are criminals" (Al-Anam, 6: 147).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: "Ya Allha Anta Dhur Rahma (O, Allah, You are the Possessor and Source of Mercy), asking Him to extend His mercy on the caller, and the dear others, living and dead.  

Nobody should be named with this Good Name of Allah, as only He is the Possessor and Source of Mercy. However, part of this Good Name of Allah, Al- Raheem, can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul- Raheem (Worshipper of the Merciful). A boy can also be named as "Ra'heem" (merciful), without the definite article (Al), as humans have the capability of being merciful. Likewise, girls can have this trait in their names. Thus, one of the common female Islamic names in relation to this Good Name of Allah is Rahma (mercy).

***

9. Al-Malik: The King, The Sovereign    

"Al-Malik" (the King, the Sovereign) is an adjectival name, derived from the root verb malaka (to own, rule over, and enjoy sovereignty). It conveys the meaning of the absolute ruler over His kingdom (sovereignty), which includes the Heavens, the Earth, what is in between them, the Chair, the Throne, and the creations living in them. He is the King of this life and the King of the Hereafter, as mentioned in verses 67: 1 and 40: 16, as well as in the Hadith of the Prophet, pbbuh. [40]

ٰ ( 67: 1).

ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 40: 16).

Blessed is He in Whose Hand is the dominion (of the Universe), and Who is Capable of (doing) everything (Al-Mulk, 67: 1).

The Day they come forth nothing concerning them will be concealed from Allah. To whom belongs Sovereignty this Day? To Allah, the One, the Subduer (Ghafir, 40: 16).

This Good Name of Allah (The King, The Sovereign) was mentioned four times in the Holy Quran, in 20: 114; 23: 116; 59: 23; 62: 1, as follows:

ۗ ٰ ۖ ( 20: 114).

ۖ ٰ ( 23: 59).

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

( 62: 1).

So high (above all) is Allah, the King (Sovereign), the Truth. And (O Muhammad), do not hasten with (the recitation of the Quran before its revelation is completed to you, and say, "My Lord, increase me in knowledge" (Ta-Ha, 20: 114).

So exalted is Allah, the King (Sovereign), the Truth. There is no deity except Him, Lord of the Throne, the Noble (Al-Muminoon, 23: 59).

He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Bestower of Faith, the Dominant, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23).

Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth is exalting Allah, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-Jumua, 62: 1).

In addition, this Good Name of Allah Al-Malik (The King, the Sovereign) was mentioned as the first Name of Allah in verse 23 of Surat Al-Hashr (Chapter 59) of the Holy Quran, which is the Sura that includes 19 of the Good Names of Allah in its three last verses, as follows:

ٰ ۖ ۖ ٰ ﴿٢٢﴾ ٰ ۚ ﴿٢٣﴾ ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 59: 22-24).

He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, Knower of the unseen and the witnessed. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful. (22) He is Allah, other than whom there is no deity, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer, the Dominant, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him. (23) He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the Good Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the Earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (24) (Al-Hashr, 59: 22-24).

Al-Ghazali, may Allah have mercy on his soul, succinctly summarized an application of the meaning of this Good Name of Allah to people. He said that worshippers of Allah can achieve sovereignty in this sense if they do not allow anything else to control their behaviors, other than Allah. They should not allow their lust, anger, or any desires to possess them. In addition, they should be in control of the various organs of their body, particularly their tongues (to speak rightly), eyes (to see whats allowed), and hands (to use them in doing good deeds). Only then, they may possess the rank of sovereignty in their lower life, which gets them closer to Allah, praise to Him, in the hereafter.

Calling on Allah, with this Good Name maybe by saying: "Ya Malik Al-Milook, wa Sahib Al-Malakoot" (O, King of kings and Sovereign over the Dominion), and asking Him to extend His protection to the caller and others.

This Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Malik (Worshipper of Allah, the King of this life and the hereafter). Although no Muslim is named as Malik (King), a person may become a king over a country or a profession, then they may be called so, as a title, but not a name12.5. Living up to the meanings of this Name means treating subjects or subordinates with kindness and care, as well as ruling over people and between them according to the commands of Allah, praise to Him.

***

10. Al-Maleek: The Great King, the The Great Sovereign      

"Al-Maleek" (the Great King, the Great Sovereign) is an adjectival name, derived from the root verb malaka (to own, rule over, and enjoy sovereignty). It is also an amplified form of the adjectival name Malik (King, Sovereign), which shares the same root verb.

So, this Good Name of Allah means that He, praise to Him, is the Greatest King, the Greatest Sovereign, Who rules over all of His creations, and Who is capable of doing anything He wills (See other meanings mentioned about Al-Malik above). 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in verse 54: 55, which describes where the righteous will be living in the hereafter, as follows:

 ﴿٥٤﴾   ﴿٥٥﴾ ( 54: 54-55).

Indeed, the righteous will be (living) in gardens and (beside) rivers, (54) In a seat of honor, near a Great King (Great Sovereign), Perfect in Ability. (55) (Al-Qamar, 54: 55).

***

11. Maalik Yawm Al-Deen" (pronounced as maaliku yawmud deen): The Owner of the Day of Accountability    

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned in the Holy Quran once, in verse 1: 4. It comes as the fifth in the sequence of these Good Names, after Allah, Al-Rahman (the Beneficent), Al-Raheem (the Merciful), and Rab Al-Alameen (the Lord of the Worlds).

ٰ ﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤﴾ ( 1: 4).

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. (1) Praise is (due) to Allah, Lord of the Worlds - (2) The Beneficent, the Merciful, (3) Owner (Sovereign) of the Day of Accountability (4) (Al-Fatiha, 1: 1-4).

Maalik Yawm Al-Deen" means that He alone is the Owner of His vast dominium on the Day of Accountability. His creations may possess different forms of ownership during their lower life, including property, wealth, influence, and power. However, they come on the Day of Accountability helpless, powerless, and without any form of ownership they used to have, except their deeds. If their deeds were good, then they will be rewarded an everlasting life in Paradise, as the Owner of the Day of Accountability has promised them. But, if they disbelieved in Allah and His signs during their lower life, then they will face a humiliating punishment in the Hell Fire, as stated in verses 22: 56-57.

ۚ ﴿٥٦﴾ ٰ ﴿٥٧﴾ ( 22: 56-57).

Ownership (Sovereignty) that Day is for Allah; He will judge between them. So, they who believed and did good deeds will be in the Gardens of Pleasure. (56) And they who disbelieved and denied Our signs - for those there will be a humiliating punishment. (57) (Al-Haj, 22: 56).

Yawm Al-Deen" is also the Day of Judgment among humans and jinn, as well as among angels, about that which they disputed about during the lower life. They will stand before the Owner of that Day, Who will judge among them. They will not be able to speak until they will be permitted to do so by the Beneficent. Even then, they will only say that which is correct, as stated in verses 22: 17, 11: 19, 39: 75, and 78: 38, as follows:

ٰ ۚ ٰ ( 22: 17).

... ( 11: 119).

ۖ ( 39: 75).

ۖ ٰ ( 78: 38).

On the Day of Rising, Allah will certainly judge among those who believe, and those who became Jews, and Sabaeans, and Christians, and Magians, and those who associate others with Allah (in His Divinity). Surely, Allah watches over everything (Al-Zumar, 39: 75).

and the word of your Lord is to be fulfilled that, "I will surely fill Hell with jinn and humans all together" (Hood, 11: 119).

And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne, exalting their Lord with praise. And it will be judged among them in truth, and it will be said, "Praise to Allah, Lord of the Worlds." (75) (Al-Zumar, 39: 75).

The Day that the Spirit (Jibril) and the angels will stand in rows, they will not speak, except for one whom the Beneficent permits, and he will say (that which is) correct (Al-Naba, 78: 38).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: "Ya Maaliku Yawmud Deen" (O, the Owner of the Day of Accountability), asking Him to extend His mercy on the caller, and others, on that Day.

Only Allah, praise to Him, is "Maaliku Yawmud Deen" (The Owner of the Day of Accountability). So, nobody should be called as such except Him. However, part of this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Maalik (Worshipper of Allah, the Owner of the Day of Accountability). A boy can also  be named as "Maalik" (owner), without the definite article (Al), as humans have the capability of being owners of some property during their lower life on Earth.

***

 

12. Maalik Al-Mulk: The Owner of the Dominion    
 
This Good Name of Allah, Maalik Al-Mulk, is mentioned once in the Holy Quran. It means "The Owner of the Dominion." As such, He gives parts of His Dominion to whoever He wills and takes parts of it from whoever He wills, as mentioned in verse 3: 26.

ۖ ۖ ٰ ( 3: 26).

Say: "O Allah, Owner of the Dominion, You give sovereignty (on parts of it) to whom You will and You take sovereignty (on parts of it) away from whom You will. You honor whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your hand is (all) good. Indeed, You are Capable over everything (Aal-Imran, 3: 26).

 

In his interpretation of this verse (3: 26), Al-Qurtubi mentioned the definitions of Mujahid and Al-Zajaj of Al-Mulk (the Dominion), as the Prophethood, dominance, wealth, people and their possessions, lower life, and the hereafter. He added that it is a reference to giving the territories of the Persian and Roman empires to Muslims, to rule them by Gods commands.

 

The three interpreters mentioned that it is a reference to giving the final Message of Maalik Al-Mulk (the Owner of the Dominion), the Holy Quran, to humanity through His final Messenger, Muhammed, pbbuh. Thus, He denied this greatest honor to the Children of Israeli, who used to have Messages of Allah sent through Messengers and Prophets from among them. This was because of their disobedience, killing Prophets, and rejection of Eissa (Jesus), peace be upon him.   

 

The word Mulk (Dominion) is mentioned four times in the Holy Quran, in relation to Gods ownership of His vast Dominion, during the lower life of His creations and in the hereafter, as mentioned earlier in verses 67: 1 and 40: 16. It is also mentioned in verse 6: 73, which states Gods Ownership of the Dominion when the Trumpet is blown, at the Beginning of the Last Day, as well as in verse 17: 111, which confirms that He has no partners in His Ownership of the Dominion.

 

... ۚ ۚ ( 6: 73).

 

ۖ ( 17: 111).

 

and His is the Dominion (on) the Day the Horn is blown. (He is) Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, and He is the Wise, the Expert (Al-Anam, 6: 73).

 

And say: "Praise to Allah, who has not taken a son, and has had no partner in the Dominion, and has no protector out of weakness, and glorify Him with (great) glorification" (Al-Issra, 17: 111). 

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, "Ya Maalik Al-Mulk" (O, the Owner of the Dominion), then asking for His blessing in what the caller is attempting to get from this lifes temporary property. More important is learning a lesson from seeing ownership being exchanged among people, as it is being taken from some of them and given to others. 

Only Allah, praise to Him, is "Maalik Al-Mulk" (The Owner of the Dominion). So, nobody should be called as such except Him. However, part of this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Maalik (Worshipper of Allah, the Owner of the Dominion). A boy can also be named as "Maalik" (owner), without the definite article (Al), as humans have the capability of being owners of some property during their lower life on Earth. 

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, "Ya Maalik Al-Mulk" (O, the Owner of the Dominion), then asking for His blessing in what the caller is attempting to get from this lifes temporary property. More important is learning a lesson from seeing ownership being exchanged among people, as it is being taken from some of them and given to others.

***

 

13. Al-Quddoos: The Holy    

Al-Quddoos means The Holy. It is one of the Good Names of Allah, which was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in verses 59: 23 and 62: 1, as follows:

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

( 62: 1).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23). 

Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth is exalting Allah, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-Jumua, 62: 1).

Al-Quddoos (The Holy) is the absolute in His perfection, beauty, and majesty. He is impeccable, in the sense that He is the One Who is unattainable by any description, and He is not realized by senses, or imagination, or conscience, or thought, as defined by Al-Ghazali. The three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran agreed that "Al-Quddoos" (the Holy) also means the Blessed, the Pure in Cleanliness and Perfection, and the One Who is exalted, praised, and glorified by the angels.

In his book, Al-Asna, Al-Qurtubi, explained that "Al-Quddoos" (the Holy) means the Pure and the Blessed, based on the meaning of the two words holy and blessed in verses 5: 21 and 21: 81, as follows:

ٰ ( 5: 21).

 

ۚ ( 21: 81).

 

O my people, enter the Holy Land, which Allah has assigned to you, and do not turn back, and (thus) become losers" (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 21).

 

And to Sulayman (Solomon), (We subjected) the wind, blowing forcefully, proceeding by his command toward the land which We had blessed. And We are ever, of all things, Knowing (Al-Anbiya, 21: 81).

 

Moreover, "Al-Quddoos" (the Holy) is the One Who is exalted, praised, and glorified by the angels, as an acknowledgement of Him as their God and Lord, and the God and Lord of all creations in His vast Dominion, as mentioned in verse 2: 30 and in the above-mentioned verse 62: 1.

 

ۖ ۖ ( 2: 30).

 

And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority." They said, "Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?" Allah said, "Indeed, I know that which you do not know (Al-Baqara, 2: 30).

in reference to the Senior Angel, Jibril, peace to him. He is described in the Holy Quran as "Al-Rrouh Al-Qudus," (pronounced as Arrouh Al-Qudus"), which means the Holy Spirit, in reference to his purity and perfection in conveying the messages of Allah to His human Messengers. Thus, is a reference to the Holiness, Purity and Perfection of Allah, praise to him.

Al-Qudus is another variant of "Al-Quddoos," as mentioned in verse 16: 102, which describes the angel Jibril, peace be to him, as Rrouh Al-Qudus" (Spirit of the Holy), and verse 19: 17, which confirms that he is the Spirit of Allah, praise to Him.

ٰ ( 16: 102).

 

( 19: 17).

 

Say, (O Muhammad), "The Spirit of the Holy has brought it down from your Lord in truth, to make firm those who believe, and as guidance, and good tidings to the Muslims (Al-Nahl, 16: 102).

 

And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then, We sent to her Our Spirit (Jibril), and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man (Maryam, 19: 17). 

Thus, Allah, praise to Him, is "Al-Quddoos" (the Holy), the absolute in His perfection, beauty, and majesty. He is pure, blessed, exalted, praised, and glorified by all of His intelligent creations, including the angels, humans, and jinn, as an acknowledgement of His Godhood, His countless bounties, and His favors to them.

Believers can implement some of meanings contained in this Good Name of Allah by doing their best to make their deeds as perfect, beautiful, dignified, and well-done as possible. They should satisfy their needs within what their Lord, Allah, has allowed. They also need to be thinking all the time about their Creator, His Dominion, and what He has prepared for His creations in the hereafter. They should perform their responsibilities at home, work, and society with at most seriousness, avoiding distraction by entertainment and other time-wasting, aimless activities, following the Prophets teachings, pbbuh, who said: Indeed, Allah, praise to Him, is beautiful and He loves beauty. He (also) loves high manners and hates low behaviors. [41]

A believer can also apply knowledge

A believer can also apply knowledge about this Good Name of Allah by calling upon Him, with it, "Ya Quddoos (O, Holy), and asking Him to extend His blessings and favors on the caller and others, in this world and in the hereafter. Only Allah, praise to Him, is "Al-Quddoos" (The Holy). So, nobody should be called as such except Him. However, this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Quddoos (Worshipper of the Holy). 

***

 

14. Al-Salam (pronounced as as-salam): The Peace    

"Al-Salam" (pronounced as as-salam) means "The Peace." Allah, praise to Him, is the Peace and the source of peace to His creations. His Message of Peace (Islam) has been conveyed to humanity through his Messengers, peace be upon them. Following His commands helps His creations to live in peace and safety during their lower life and to get to His ultimate House of Peace (Paradise) in the hereafter.

Moreover, "Al-Salam" means that Allah, praise to Him, is safe from any shortcomings or defects, which warrants His glorification by His creations in the heavens and the Earth. It also means that He has promised His creations not to do injustice to them (Younus, 10: 44). Further, it refers to His greeting of believers in His Paradise, with the word of Peace" (Al-Ahzab, 33: 44). [42]

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in verse 59: 23.

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23). 

The word Al-Salam (Peace) is also mentioned six more times in the Holy Quran, showing different aspects of the meaning of peace. Thus, it means greeting people with the word of peace in verse 4: 94, the path of peace (safety) in 5: 16, Paradise in 6: 127 and 10: 25, blessing in 19: 33, and glad tiding to the followers of Gods guidance in 20: 47.

ٰ ( 4: 94).

( ) ٰ ( 5: 16).

ۖ ( 6: 127).

ٰ ٰ ( 10: 25).

( 19: 33).

ٰ ٰ ( 20: 47).

and do not say to one who gives you (a greeting of) peace: "You are not a believer" (Al-Nissa, 4: 94).

)A clear Book) By which Allah guides those who pursue His pleasure to the ways of peace, and brings them out from the  (degrees of) darkness into the light, by His permission, and guides them to a straight path (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 16).

For them will be the House of Peace with their Lord. And He will be their protecting friend because of what they used to do (Al-Anam, 6: 127).

And Allah invites to the House of Peace and guides whom He wills to a straight path (Younus, 10: 25).

And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive (Maryam, 19: 33).

And peace will be upon he who follows the guidance (Ta-Ha, 20: 33).

Believers can implement some of the meanings contained in this Good Name of Allah Al-Salam (The Peace) by struggling to be in internal peace within the self and in external peace with others. The internal peace develops when the two components of the self reconcile towards solutions which reflect goodness and contentment. It also develops as the self is in a continuous process of purification, which is attained by getting rid of negative feelings towards innocent people. [43]

The external peace with others is reached by a tendency of not harming them, by tongue or hand, and by not transgressing on their blood and wealth, as we learn from the Hadith. The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, also told us that good deeds help people enter Paradise, the House of Peace. These include greeting people with peace, feeding the needy, keeping good relations with relatives, and standing in prayers at night. [43]

A believer may call upon Allah, praise to Him, with this Good Name of His, saying: "Ya Allah, Anta As-Salam wa Minka As-Salam (O Allah, You are the Peace, and from You comes the peace), and asking Him to descend His peace on the caller, and others, in this life and the hereafter. This was how the Prophet, pbbuhh, used to do, in praising and exalting his Lord. [45]

 

Only Allah, praise to Him, is "Al-Salam" (The Peace). So, nobody should be called as such, with the definite article (Al), except Him. However, this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul- Salam (Worshipper of the Peace). Further, boys and girls can be named as "Salam" (peace), without the definite article (Al), as humans have some of this trait and the capability of being peaceful, during their lower life on Earth.

*** 

15. Al-Mu.min: The Believer in His Godhood    

 

"Al-Mu.min" (pronounced with a glottal stop between the vowel u and the consonant m) means "The Believer."

 

Allah, praise to Him, is "The Believer" in His Godhood. He stated that clearly in the Holy Quran, saying that He proclaimed that there is no other god but Him (3: 18).

 

ٰ ۚ ٰ ( 3: 18).

 

Allah witnesses that there is no deity except Him, and [so do] the angels and those of knowledge - [that He is] maintaining [creation] in justice. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-i Imran, 3: 18).

 

"Al-Mu.min" as a Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Hashr (59: 23).

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23). 

Al-Tabari mentioned that Al-Mu.min (The Believer), as one of the Good Names of Allah, means the One Who has believed that He is the Truth (3: 18). Al-Qurtubi pointed to the Arabic verb ammana, from which the noun mu.min came from, meaning shielded, or safe-guarded, or made safe. Thus, Allah, praise to Him, is the One Who shielded (safe-guarded) believers form doing injustice to them or from causing them to be frightened (106: 4).

 

The verb ammana also means secured or prepared something for somebody. So, Allah, praise to Him, secured (prepared) Paradise for believers, as He promised them (4: 122) and the Hellfire for disbelievers, as He warned them (9: 68).

 

Apparently, these meanings of this Good Name of Allah, which were provided by the three interpreters, have support from the referenced verses of the Holy Quran above, and as follows:

ٰ ( 10: 44).

 

ٰ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤﴾ ( 106: 3-4).

 

ۖ ۚ ( 4: 122).

 

ۚ ۚ ۖ ( 9: 68).

 

Indeed, Allah does not do injustice to the people at all, but it is the people who do injustice to themselves (Younus, 10: 44).

 

Let them worship the Lord of this House, (3) Who has fed them, (saving them) from hunger and made them safe, (saving them) from fear (Quraysh, 106: 3-4).

 

But the ones who believe and do righteous deeds - We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. (It is) the promise of Allah, (which is) truth, and who is more truthful than Allah in statement (Al-Nissa, 4: 122).

 

Allah has promised the hypocrite men and hypocrite women and the disbelievers the fire of Hell, wherein they will abide eternally. It is sufficient for them. And Allah has cursed them, and for them is an enduring punishment (Al-Tawba, 9: 68).

 

In the Hadith, the meaning of Al-Mu.min (the believer) is the one who is trusted by believers, not to transgress on their life and wealth. Thus, this meaning is in agreement with the meaning contained in verse 106: 4, mentioned above. This means that Allah, praise to Him, has secured the believers (safe-guarded them), that they would not receive any injustice or scare from Him, as we learn from the following Hadith:

 

: : " : . : . : : - . : . " ( : 7017).

 

Companion Abudllah Bin Amr, mAbpwh, said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, saying: Do you know who is a Muslim? They said: Allah and His Messenger know (better). He said: (He is the one) from whose tongue and hand Muslims are safe.

 

(Then, he) said: Do you know who is a Mu.min? They said: Allah and His Messenger know (better). He said: (He is the one) who is trusted by believers not to transgress on their life and wealth. And the immigrant (for the sake of Allah) is the one who leave behind and avoid wrong-doing (authenticated by Shuaib Al-Arna-aut as a Sahih Hadith, in Takhreej Al-Musnad: 7017). 

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it. Saying: "Allahumma, Anta Al-Mu.min (You are the Believer that there is no other god but You, and You are the Believer in the faith of those who believe in You). Then, the caller asks Allah to accept his/her faith and good deeds, and to be safeguarded from the evils of this lower life, and from the punishment in the hereafter.

In this sense, only Allah, praise to Him, is capable of safeguarding His creations and of caring for them in this life and in the hereafter. Thus, nobody should be called "Al-Mu.min" (The Believer), with the definite article (Al), except Him. However, this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Mu.min (Worshipper of the Believer). A boy can also be named as "Mu.min" (believer), without the definite article (Al), as humans have this trait and the capability of being believers in Allah, during their lower life on Earth. A girl can be named as Mu.mina, as well. Living up to the meanings of this Name means the belief in Allah and His Messenger, as well as avoiding any harm to the believers caring about their safety.

*** 

16. Al-Muhaymin: The Dominant    

"Al-Muhaymin," as Good Name of Allah, was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in verse 59: 23.

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23). 

"Al-Muhaymin," means that Allah, praise to Him, is "The Dominant" over His creations, including angels, jinn, and humans, who are helpless before His Power. It also refers to God's ability to run His Dominion smoothly and perfectly, including His Throne, Chair, the seven heavens, and seven earths. In addition, it refers to his ability to watch His creations and to record their secret and public deeds and words, in a record that does not leave any behavior out, be it small or great, as He told us in verse 18: 49.

ٰ ۚ ۗ ( 18: 49).

And the record (of deeds) will be placed (open), and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say, "Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or big except that it has enumerated (included) it?" And they will find what they did present (before them). And your Lord does not do injustice to anyone (Al-Kahf, 18: 49).

The same word "muhaymin" (dominant) was also mentioned once, as an adjective, in verse 5: 48. It came as a description of the Holy Quran, in its relationship with the preceding Scripture. Thus, just like Allah, praise to Him, is dominant over all of His creations, His Last Message to humanity, the Holy Quran, is dominant over the preceding Scriptures.

ۖ ۖ ۚ ( 5: 48).

And We have revealed to you, (O Muhammad), the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and dominant over it. So, judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations, away from what has come to you of the truth (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 48).

Al-Tabari provided several interpretations, from his predecessors, for the word "muhaymin" (dominant), mentioned in verse 5: 48. He wrote that the Holy Quran confirmed the Books which came before it, provided a testimony that these were from Allah, and it was a judge on the content of these Books, as stated by Ibn Abbas.

Al-Qurtubi provided similar interpretations, but he was clearer in that the word "muhaymin" (dominant) means above and higher than them. Ibn Katheer agreed with them both, saying that the Holy Quran judges the content of the Books preceding it. So, the content of these Books is considered to be true, as long as it is in an agreement with the Holy Quran. However, any disagreement in these Books with the Holy Quran is a falsehood.

The main reason for the Holy Quran dominance over the Books of Allah, which preceded it, is that Allah has pledged in verse 15: 9 that He is going to preserve it, guarding it against any corruption. Thus, the Holy Quran is different from the preceding Books of Allah, some of which were written hundreds of years after the death of the Messenger, such as those of the Old Testament, particularly the Torah. Likewise, the Books of the New Testament went through successive translations, which affected their content. Eissa (Jesus), peace be to him, spoke Aramaic. However, his Disciples wrote the Books of the New Testament in Greek. Then, these Books were translated to other old languages, and finally to various modern languages. [46]

( 15: 9).

Indeed, it is We who sent down the Quran, and indeed, We will be its preservers (guarding it against any corruption) (Al-Hijr, 15: 9).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, saying: "Allahumma, Ya Muhaymin (O Allah, the Dominant One). Then, the caller asks Him for protection from the arrogance of power, which may be exacted by the tyrants and oppressors of the world.

Only Allah, praise to Him, is "Al-Muhaymin" (The Dominant, the Watchful, Who rules) over all of His creations, in this life and in the hereafter. So, nobody should be called as such, with or without the definite article (Al), except Him. However, this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Muhaymin (Worshipper of the Dominant). 

Living up to the meanings of this Name means that those who assume positions of dominance over others, should not oppress them. Instead, they should rule over them and between them according to the commands of Allah, the Dominant, Lord of the Worlds.

***

 

17. Al-'Azeez: The Rare in His Honorable Might    

"Al-Azeez" (the Rare in Might) was among the 10 Good Name of Allah, mentioned in verse 59: 23 of the Holy Quran, as follows:

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23). 

The apostrophe before the letter "A" in "Al-'Azeez" refers to a glottal sound, known as the fifteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, 'ayn.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned 88 times in the Holy Quran, with and without the definite article (Al). In the vast majority of these times, it came together with another Good Name of Allah, which helps in its definition and clarification.

As such, it came together with Al-Hakeem (the Wise) 29 times, with Al-Raheem (the Merciful) 13 times, with Al-Aleem (the Knower) 6 times, and less than that with other Good Names, like Al-Kareem (the Generous), Al-Hameed (the Praised), Al-Wahhab (the Bestower), Al-Ghaffar (the Forgiving), Al-Ghafoor (the Forgiver), Al-Qawiy (the Powerful), Al-Jabbar (the Compeller), as well as without the definite article, as Muqtadir (Competent), and Dhu Intiqam (the Vengeful).

Linguistically, the Name of "Al-'Azeez" is derived from the Arabic verb /azza/, which means to be rare, high in position and rank, and in power. Thus, "Al-'Azeez" means the Mighty, the Invincible, and the glorious. Examples of these meanings can be found in the Holy Quran, such as in verses 3: 26, 4: 139, and 63: 8, as follows: [47]

ۖ ۖ ٰ ( 3: 26).

ۚ ( 4: 139).

( 63: 8)

Say, "O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You empower whom You will and You humiliate whom You will. In Your hand is (all) good. Indeed, You are Capable (of doing) everything (Al-i-Imran, 3: 26).

Those who take disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. Do they seek with them power? But indeed, (all) power (might) belongs to Allah entirely (Al-Nissa, 4: 139).

And to Allah belongs (all) power (might), and to His Messenger, and to the believers (Al-Munafiqoon, 63: 8).

Ibn Katheer agreed with Al-Tabari on that "Al-'Azeez" is the Mighty (Powerful), Who is capable of doing anything He wants. Al-Qurtubi added that "Al-'Azeez" is the Victorious Who cannot be defeated, and nobody is like Him. He is the Noble, Majestic, Empowering, and rare in His existence but He is capable of doing what He wants, unlike other rare things, which are helpless. Al-Ghazali expressed the same meaning by defining Al-Azeez as the dangerous who is rare in existence, who is mostly needed, and who is unreachable.

In conclusion, Al-Azeez is the Mighty, Who is the source of ultimate power, protection, perfection, and elevation. Whoever is seeking these traits from anybody other than Allah, he/she will go astray. However, those who seek these traits from Allah, they are on His right path, as He is the source of all honorable power, as mentioned in verse 35: 10.

ۚ ( 35: 10).

Whoever desires honorable power, then to Allah belongs all honorable power (Fatir, 35: 10).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, "Ya Azeez (O, You, the Rare in His Honorable Might), asking Him to empower the caller to stay on the right path in this life, to be rewarded with the ultimate prize, with life in His Paradise forever, in the hereafter.

Only Allah, praise to Him, is "Al-Azeez" (The Rare in Might), Who is dominant, more powerful, and more capable than all of His creations. So, nobody should be called as such, with the definite article (Al), except Him. However, this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Azeez (Worshipper of the Rare in Might). In addition, boys and girls can be named as "Azeez" and Azeeza, respectively, without the definite article (Al), as humans have some of these traits of power, capability, and dominance, during their lower life on Earth. So, those who are given some of these characteristics should use them in a way that pleases Al-Azeez, the Lord of, Source and Bestower of any rare and honorable might.

*** 

 

18. Al-Jabbar: The Compeller    

Al-Jabbar (The Compeller) is one of the Good Name of Allah. It was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in verse 59: 23.

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23). 

"Al-Jabbar" is derived from the Arabic verb jabara, which means to compel broken bones to be straightened up and healed. It also means to compel (force) somebody to do something. In algebra, it means to substitute a number with a letter or a symbol.

Thus, "Al-Jabbar" means "The Compeller," who compels (forces) parts of His dominion to follow His rules and His creations to follow His commands. So, He is the straightener (the reformer) of His creations, and the punisher of the tyrants and the disobedient among them in the hereafter.

The word jabbar, in its singular and plural forms, is mentioned 9 times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), to mean strong, compeller, or tyrant. It was a description of ancient Palestinians (in Al-Ma-ida, 5: 22), of 'Aad, the people of Hood, pbuh, who followed their obstinate tyrant leaders (in Hood, 11: 59), of obstinate tyrants in general ) in Ibrahim, 14: 15(, Prophet Yahya (John the Baptist), pbuh, who was not a disobedient tyrant )in Maryam, 19: 14(, the Messiah, Jesus, pbuh, who was not a wretched tyrant (in Maryam, 19: 32), Aad, the people of Hood, pbuh, who used to kill people without the right to do so (in Al-Shuara, 26: 130), a reminder by an Egyptian man to Moussa (Moses), pbuh, to be a reformer, not a corruptor on the land (in Al-Qasas, 28: 19), the one who disputed signs of Allah is an arrogant tyrant (in Ghafir, 40: 35), and a reminder from Allah, praise to Him, to His Messenger, pbbuh, that his job is to teach people with the Holy Quran, not to compel (force) them to believe, as they have the choice, then they will be held accountable to their choices in the hereafter (in Qaf, 50: 45).

Rather, only Allah, the Compeller, is capable to force all of His creations to stand before Him for reckoning, on the Last Day, including His Messengers, like Eissa (Jesus) and the closest angels, as we read in verse 4: 172.

ۚ ( 4: 172).

The Messiah does not disdain to be a worshipper of Allah, nor do the closest angels (to Allah). Whoever disdains His worship and is too arrogant (to worship Allah), He will gather all of them to Him (Al-Nissa, 4: 172).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: "Allahumma, Ya Jabbar (O, Allah, You the Compeller), You are the Exacter of Revenge on the tyrants and the oppressors, on the Day of Reckoning. Shield us of their evils and plots and guide us to Your right path.

Only Allah, praise to Him, is "Al-Jabbar" (The Compeller). So, nobody other than Him should be called as such, with the definite article (Al). No Muslim should also be named as Jabbar, without the definite article (Al), because it is a description of the obstinate, disobedient, and tyrants. However, this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Jabbar (Worshipper of the Compeller).

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that a believer should not become an obstinate, disobedient, or tyrant, oppressing people. Instead, a believer should be kind and merciful, not only towards family members and relatives, but also towards people in general. In all what he/she says and does, a believer should struggle to please Allah, Al-Jabbar (the Compeller), Who will compel His creations to stand for reckoning before Him, on the Day when He will be the only Compeller, praise to Him.

*** 

19. Al-Mutakabbir: The Superior    

"Al-Mutakabbir" is a Good Name of Allah, which was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in verse 59: 23.

ٰ ۚ ( 59: 23).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the King (Sovereign), the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him (Al-Hashr, 59: 23). 

Linguistically, "Al-Mutakabbir" (The Superior) is an adjective, derived from the Arabic verb kabura, which means to become greater and higher. Thus, when applying it to Allah, praise to Him, it means The Superior, Who is Greater and Higher in position and capabilities than His creations, no matter how great or high they become. So, He deserves to be worshipped by them, with praise and thanks, due to their creation and the countless blessings He bestows on them.

In his interpretation of verse 59: 23, Al-Tabari and Ibn Katheer mentioned that "Al-Mutakabbir" is the One Who is greater than everything. Al-Qurtubi elaborated saying that He is the Great, the High, Who became Greater by His Lordship (as a God). So, nothing is like Him. He is also the Elevated above all bad qualities (people may have).

The word "Mutakabbir," was mentioned in the Holy Quran, as a singular, indefinite adjective, to mean an arrogant person, who does not believe in the Day of Reckoning (Ghafir, 40: 27), and the one who disputes the signs of Allah without knowledge about them (Ghafir, 40: 35). The word "Al-Mutakabbireen," was mentioned in the Holy Quran, as a plural, definite adjective, to refer to the arrogant persons, who disbelieve in Allah (Ghafir, 40: 72), who do injustice to themselves (Al-Nahl, 16: 29), who disbelieve in the signs of Allah (Al-Zumar, 39: 60), and who disbelieve in His Messengers (Al-Zumar, 39: 72). Such categories of people will be punished in the hereafter, for their arrogance during their lower life. The Prophet, pbbuh, also told us that such arrogant categories of people will not enter Paradise. [48]

As a conclusion, Allah, praise to Him is The Superior (Al-Mutakabbir) because He is Greater and Higher than anything and anyone, due to being the Creator and the Lord of His dominion, as well as the Beneficent, who benefits all of His creations.

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, saying: "Allahumma, Ya  Mutakabbir (O, Allah, You the Superior)! You are greater and higher than any of Your Creations, in status, rank, and capability. I praise and thank You for Your countless favors, particularly enabling me to be humble before You and with your believing worshippers. I ask you to shield me from the ill intentions of the arrogant ones in this life.
 
Nobody should be named as "Al-Mutakabbir," with the definite article (Al), out of respect to the Superiority of Allah, praise to him, over all of His creations. Likewise, nobody should be named as Mutakabbir, without the definite article (Al), because it is a description of the arrogant disbelievers, who will be punished in the hereafter for their arrogance. However, this Good Name of Allah can be included in a name given to boys, Abdul-Mutakabbir," (Worshipper of the Superior).

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that a believer should not be arrogant, despising people and boasting that he/she is better than them because of body features, genealogy, or wealth. He/she should not do that because we are all Gods creations, descendants of Adam (homo sapiens sapiens), and our possession of wealth is for a very short time, which ends after death. Instead, a believer needs to be a humble person, realizing and acknowledging that the only One Who is truly Mutakabbir (Superior) is Allah, for who He is, as the God of His creations, praise to Him.

*** 

 

20. Al-Khaliq: The Creator      

This Good Name of Allah contains two sounds, which have no equivalence in the English alphabet. The underlined letters "kh" refer to the seventh letter of the Arabic alphabet. The letter "q" is the closest translation of the twentieth letter of the Arabic alphabet.

Al-Khaliq (The Creator) was mentioned once in the Holy Quran with the definite article (Al), in verse 59: 24, and five times without it, as in verse 6: 102. It was also mentioned as the act of creation in three other verses. [49]

ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 59: 24).

ٰ ۖ ٰ ۖ ۚ ٰ ( 6: 102).

He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the Good Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the Earth is exalting Him. And He is the Rare in Might, the Wise (Al-Hashr, 59: 24).

That is Allah, your Lord; there is no deity except Him, the Creator of everything, so worship Him. And He is a Patron of everything (Al-Anam, 6: 102).

***

"Al-Khaliq" (The Creator) is derived from the Arabic verb khalaqa, which means to bring something from non-existence to existence. This meaning does not apply to anybody else except Allah, praise to Him, Who is the Creator of something out of nothing, as stated in verse 52: 35, Who is the Creator of everything (6: 102), including the creation of the heavens and the Earth (52: 36).

( 52: 35).

ۚ ( 52: 36).

Or were they created by nothing, or were they the creators (of themselves)? (Al-Tour, 52: 35).

Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Rather, they are not certain (Al-Tour, 52: 36).

In his interpretation of verse 59: 24 and other verses about creation, which mention determination (Al-Furqan, 25: 2), decreeing (Al-Baqara, 2: 117), the will and the being (Ya-Seen, 36: 82), Al-Tabari mentioned that the Creator is the only deity Who is worthy of worship. Al-Qurtubi said that the Creator is the determinator. He was followed by Ibn Katheer, who said that creation is determination. They both agreed with Al-Tabari on that creation passes through three stages, starting with the determination, followed by decreeing (with the word Be), and existence (it is).

... ( 25: 2).

ۖ ٰ ( 2: 117).

ٰ ۚ ٰ ﴿٨١﴾ ﴿٨٢﴾ ( 36: 81-82).

(He) has created each thing by determining it with (precise and measured) determination (Al-Furqan, 25: 2).

Originator of the heavens and the Earth. When He decrees a matter, He says to it, "Be," and it is (Al-Baqara, 2: 117).

Is (it) not, (that He) Who created the heavens and the Earth able to create the likes of them? Yes, (it is so), and He is the Constant Creator, the Knowing. (81) His command is only when He wants a thing that He says to it, "Be," and it is. (82) (Ya-Seen, 38: 81-82).

Al-Tabari interpreted the verb qadha, in verse 2: 117, to mean determined (or ruled), and the verb kun (be), as an imperative, commanding a non-existent thing to exist. This means that Allah, praise to Him, is knowledgeable of every existent thing before its existence. In other words, He commands things to come out from the state of non-existence to the state of existence, as a result of His knowledge of it in its state of non-existence.

Al-Qurtubi interpreted the verb qadha, to mean created, in verse 41: 12, which states: And He created them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command (Fussilat, 41: 12).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: "Allahumma, Ya Khaliq (O, Allah, You are the Creator of everything). We praise and thank You for creating us and for giving us life. We ask You to make these two favors as blessings for us, by guiding us to your right path of worship and good deeds in this life, so we can gain Your contentment and Your Paradise, in the hereafter.

No person, whether it is an angel, a jinni, or a human being, can be named as Al-Khaliq (the Creator), as only Allah, praise to Him, is the only One Who brings out non-existent things to existence, like He did to the heavens, the Earth, and those who exist in and between them. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Khaliq (Worshipper of the Creator), which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations. 

Its noteworthy that there are several other Good Names of Allah, which are related to His capability of creation. These are Al-Khallaq, Ahsanul Khaliqeen, Al-Bari, Al-Fatir, Al-Badeeu, Al-Musawwiru (The Constant Creator, the Best of Creators, the Maker, the First Creator, the originator, the Fashioner).

***

21. Al-Khallaq: The Creative and Constant Creator      

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran with the definite article (Al), in verses 15: 86 and 36: 81, as follows:

( 15: 86).

ٰ ۚ ٰ ﴿٨١﴾ ﴿٨٢﴾ ( 36: 81).

Indeed, your Lord is the Creative Creator, the Knowing (Al-Hijr, 15: 86).

Is not He who created the heavens and the Earth able to create the likes of them? Yes, ([it is so), and He is the Creative Creator, the Knowing. (81) His command is only when He wants a thing that He says to it, "Be," and it is. (82) (Ya-Seen, 36: 81).

Linguistically, Al-Khallaq means the creative and the inventor. Al-Tabari mentioned that it means the One Who creates whatever He wills and the doer of whatever He wants.

Al-Qurtubi said that it is an intensive (magnifying) form of Al-Khaliq (the Creator), as He creates one creation after another. It also means that He is the determiner of creation, the One Who does creation.

Ibn Katheer pointed to the same meaning, saying that Al-Khallaq is a reference to Gods capability to recreate His creation. He is also capable of starting the Hour (the first event of the Last Day). He can create whatever He wills.

Thus, Al-Khallaq is a trait of Allah, praise to Him, which refers to His constant (continuous) ability to create new creations and recreate past creations, like the heavens and the Earth as well as those who lived in and on them, whenever and wherever He wants.

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: "Allahumma, Ya Khallaq, Ya Aleem (O, Allah, You are the Creative and Constant Creator, You know what to create and when), I am asking You to give me the best of this life and the best of the hereafter.

No person, whether it is an angel, a jinni, or a human being, can be named as Al-Khallaq, as only Allah, praise to Him, is the only One Who is capable of constant and creative creation, bringing out non-existent things to existence, like He did to the heavens, the Earth, and those who exist in and between them. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Khallaq, which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations, though this author is unaware of naming a person as such.

***

22.  A'hsan Al-Khaliqeen (pronounced as A'hsanul Khaliqeen): The Best of Creators    

This Good Name of Allah, "A'hsanul Khaliqeen" (The Best of Creators), is a derivative of the same root verb /khalaqa/, from which "Al-Khaliq," listed above, was also derived. It was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in verses 23: 14 and 37: 125, as follows:

ۚ ( 23: 14).

﴿١٢٣﴾ ﴿١٢٤﴾ ﴿١٢٥﴾ ( 37: 125).

Then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, and We made the clot into a lump (of flesh), and We made (from) the lump, bones, and We covered the bones with flesh. Then, We developed him into another creation. So blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators (Al-Muminoon, 23: 14).

And indeed, Elyas was from among the Messengers, (123) When he said to his people, "Will you not avoid (Gods punishment)? (124) Do you call upon Ba'l and leave the Best of Creators - (125) (Al-Saffat, 37: 125).

In his interpretation of verse 23: 14, Al-Tabari mentioned Mujahids explanation that Arabs used to describe makers as creators. So, people make things and Allah makes things, but Allah is the best of the makers, in the way He determines, measures, and executes that which He wants to create.

 

An example of applying the concept of creation to people is how a carpenter makes a piece of furniture. He may measure the wood, estimating the needed lengths and widths, then He cuts the wood. He may also cut the wood first, as he wishes, then he may modify it as he wishes.

 

Further, Allah, praise to Him, is the Best of Creators, in comparison with His worshipper, Eissa (Jesus), pbuh, who used to design from clay that which is like the form of a bird, then he would breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by permission of Allah (Al-i-Imran, 3: 49).

 

Moreover, in his interpretation of verse 37: 125, Al-Tabari mentioned the story of Prophet Elyas, who advised the Israelites to worship Allah, the Best of Creators, instead of statue of the fake deity, Bal, who was neither capable to harm them nor benefit them. 

Al-Qurtubi added to that which was mentioned by Al-Tabari, saying that "A'hsanul Khaliqeen" (The Best of Creators) is different from other makers, including Eissa (Jesus), pbuh, in that He makes (creates) a thing out of nothing (He brings out a thing from non-existence to existence, while they only make things out of existent things). This Good Name also means that Allah, praise to Him, is the best in perfecting what He makes (creates), as mentioned in verse 27: 88.

ۚ ۚ ( 27: 88).

And you see the mountains, thinking them rigid, while they will pass as the passing of clouds.(It is) the work of Allah, who perfected everything (He made). Indeed, He is Acquainted with that which you do (Al-Najm, 27: 88).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, "Ya A'hsanul Khaliqeen" (O, You, the Best of Creators). You are the only One Who is capable of bringing out non-existent things to existence, while others create from that which you created before. I am asking You to give me the best of this life and the best of the hereafter.

As such, no person, whether it is an angel, a jinni, or a human being, can be named as "A'hsanul Khaliqeen" (the Best Creator), as this capability is an exclusive trait of Allah, praise to Him. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Khaliq (worshipper of the Creator), which is an appreciation for this great of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations. 

*** 

 

23. Al-Bari'u: The Maker, The Inventor, The The Curer    

Al-Bari'u (the apostrophe between the letters "i" and u refers to a glottal stop) means "The Maker who makes one distinct thing from another." Allah, praise to Him, created every living thing from water and He created humans from clay.

This Good Name of Allah, "Al-Bari'u" (The Maker, The Inventor) is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in verses 59: 24, and twice without it in verse 2: 54, as follows:

ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 59: 24).

ٰ ٰ ٰ ۚ ( 2: 59).


He is Allah,
the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the Good Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the Earth is exalting Him. And He is the Rare in Might, the Wise (Al-Hashr, 59: 24).

And (recall) when Moussa (Moses) said to his people, "O my people, indeed you have done injustice to yourselves by your taking of the calf (for worship). So, repent to your Maker and kill yourselves. That is better for you with (in the sight of) your Maker." Then, He accepted your repentance. Indeed, He is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful (Al-Baqara, 2: 54).

 

***

In his interpretation of verse 59: 24 of the Holy Quran, Al-Tabari mentioned that Al-Bari'u (The Maker, The Inventor) is the One Who brought His creations to existence, with His own capability. Ibn Katheer added that He is the One Who implemented and brought to existence that which He determined and decided. He is alone in doing so because not everyone who determines a thing is capable of implementing his/her determination and bringing it into existence.

 

Al-Qurtubi provided a more elaborate explanation, particularly in his book, Al-Asna, saying that Al-Bari'u is the Maker and the Inventor. Nobody, other than Allah, should be named or described as such. So, while Allah is the Maker and the Inventor, His creations are the made and invented.

 

Moreover, Al-Qurtubi differentiated between the meanings of the four related Good Names of Allah: Al-Bari'u (The Maker), Al-Khaliq (The Creator), Al-Badeeu (The Originator), and Al-Musawwir (The Fashioner).

 

He pointed that Al-Bari'u (The Maker) is different from Al-Khaliq (The Creator) in that it means bringing a thing into existence without determination or fashioning.

Al-Bari'u (The Maker) is different from Al-Musawwir (The Fashioner) in that it means bringing into existence that which is non-existence, while Al-Musawwir (The Fashioner) refers to fashioning creations after their existence.  

Finally, Al-Bari'u (The Maker) is the One Who originated the creation of water, dirt, fire, and air out of nothing. Then, He created other creations out of them. Thus, Al-Bari'u (The Maker) is also Al-Badeeu (The Orininator). However, it is different from Al-Badeeu (The Orininator) in that Allah was knowledgeable of that which He originated before originating it.

Another meaning of Al-Bari'u is the Curer. Believers call on Allah with this Name when they ask Him to cure them. This meaning is derived from the meaning of the Arabic verbs, which refer to the act of healing performed by Eissa (Jesus), pbuh, as mentioned in verses 3: 49 and 5: 110.

( 3: 49).

 

ۖ ( 5: 110).

I cure the blind and the leper (Al-i-Imran, 3: 49).

 

and you cured the blind and the leper with My permission (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 110).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, Allahumma, Anta Al-Bari'u (O, Allah, You are the Maker, the Inventor, and the Curer). You created everything from water, and You created humans from clay, praise to You. I am asking You for Your guidance and support in this matter, which I am going to start. I am also asking You to cure me from this illness, which I have been suffering from.  

Nobody should be named as Al-Bari'u, with the definite article (Al), or without it, as only Allah, praise to Him, is the One Who is the Maker and the Inventor, Who created the primary elements, from which other things were created. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Bari, (Worshipper of the Maker), which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations.

***

24. Al-Badeeu: The Originator    

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran without the definite article (Al), as Badeeu, in verses 2: 117 and 6: 101, as follows:

 

ۖ ٰ ( 2: 117).

 

ۖ ٰ ۖ ۖ ( 6: 101).

 

(He is) Originator of the heavens and the Earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, "Be," and it is (Al-Baqara, 2: 117).

 

(He is) Originator of the heavens and the Earth. How could He have a son when He does not have a companion and He created everything? And He is, of all things, Knowing (Al-Anam, 6: 101).

 

Al-Qurtubi agreed with Al-Tabari on that "Al-Badeeu" of the heavens and the Earth is the One Who originated them, which means the One Who invented them and brought them into existence. Ibn Katheer supported this interpretation, saying that "Al-Badeeu" is the Creator of the heavens and the Earth, in a form that did not exist before, which means that He is the Originator of that which He creates, and nobody did that  before Him.

 

Al-Qurtubi elaborated on the meaning of "Al-Badeeu," mentioning that this Name is a derivative of the Arabic verb bada-a, which means to originate things. So, "Al-Badeeu" is the One Who originated things in the sense that He was the first in bringing them out to existence. He is also the One Who creates things as He wills, anew, amazing, and without resemblance to any existent thing before. This meaning is derived a verse in the Holy Quran, which states that Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, was not the first Messenger of Allah: Say, "I am not something original (the first) among the messengers (Al-Ahqaf, 46: 9).

 

Thus, "Al-Badeeu," is the Originator of the heavens and the Earth. Nobody preceded Him in doing so. He originated them in an amazing beauty, perfection, and functionality. Exalted is Allah, the Best of Creators. 

 

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, Al-Badeeu (The Originator), asking Him for anything good to happen to the caller and others, such as help in starting a good effort or a good deed.

 

Nobody should be named as Al- Badee, with the definite article (Al), as only Allah, praise to Him, is the Originator of that which He created (the heavens, the Earth, and what is in and between them). However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Badee, (Worshipper of the Originator), which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations.

 

***

 

25. Al-Fatir: The Original Creator    

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), Fatir," in verses 6: 14; 12: 101; 14: 10; 35: 1; 39: 46; and 42: 11. In all these verses, Fatir," was mentioned as the Creator of the heavens and the Earth, as in verse 35: 1. [50]

 

( 35: 1).

 

(All) praise is (due) to Allah, Original Creator of the heavens and the Earth (Fatir, 35: 1).

 

The Name Fatir" is derived from the Arabic verb fatara, which is mentioned in the past tense 8 times, in reference to Allah, Who created. It came to mean that Allah, praise to Him, created the heavens and the Earth, in their original form (Al-Anam, 6: 79), created the Prophet, pbbuh (Hood, 11: 51), created human beings in their lower life (Al-Issra, 17: 51), created them the Egyptian magicians (Ta-Ha, 20: 72), created the heavens and the Earth (Al-Anbiya, 21: 56), created people (Al-Room, 30: 30), created the man who warned his people (Ya-Seen, 36: 22), created Ibrahim (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 27).  

The root verb fatara (to create) also came twice in the present tense, once in the future tense, and once as an adjective, in reference to heavens rupturing or cracking or breaking apart, as follows:

The heavens rupture or crack for hearing the blasphemous claim that Allah, praise to Him, has a son (in Maryam, 19: 90), and the heavens are about to rupture or crack when people take somebody else other than Allah as their patron or guardian (Al-Shoura, 42: 5), and on the Last Day, the heaven will rupture or break apart (Al-Infitar, 82: 1) and the heaven is cracked or broken apart on the Last Day (Al-Muzzamil, 73: 18). [51]

Thus, "Fatir" of the heavens and the Earth means the One Who created them, which means that He was their Originator and Inventor, who brought them out of non-existence. 

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, Allahumma, You are Fatir es-samawati wal ardh (O, Allah, You are the Original Creator of the heavens and the Earth). I am asking You to guide me to your straight, and to give me the best, in this life and the hereafter.

Nobody should be named as Al-Fatir, with the definite article (Al), or without it, as only Allah, praise to Him, is the Original Creator of the heavens and the Earth and what is in and between them. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Fatir, (Worshipper of the Original Creator), as an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations.

*** 

 

26. Al-Musawwir: The Fashioner, The Shaper    

"Al-Musawwir," as a Good Name of Allah, means that He, praise to Him, fashions His creation with the shape He wills. It was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in verse 59 :24, as follows:

ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 59: 24).

He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the Good Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the Earth is exalting Him. And He is the Rare in Might, the Wise (Al-Hashr, 59: 24).

In his interpretation of verse 59: 24, Al-Tabari mentioned that "Al-Musawwir" is the One Who creates His creations as He wills. Al-Qurtubi defined "Al-Musawwir" as the One Who plans the fashions of the images He creates and assembles them in different shapes. Ibn Katheer agreed with him and explained the three Names of Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, and Al-Musawwir, together, mentioning that He is the One Who, if He wills something, He says to it Be and it is, on the form He wants it to be, and on the image, He chooses for it.

The fashioning of images represents the fourth stage of the first creation (by creating the first living cell), proportioning, and straightening up (walking on two), as we are told by verses 82: 7-8. It is the stage which preceded the human caliphate (mandate to rule) on the Earth, as reflected in the angels prostration to Adam, mentioned in verse 7: 11, as follows:

﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ( 82: 7-8).

( 7: 11).

It is He Who created you, proportioned you, and straightened you up (7) In whatever image He willed, He has assembled you (8) (Al-Infitar, 82: 8).

And We have created you, then fashioned you (in the human form). Then, We said to the angels, "Prostrate to Adam." So, they prostrated, except for Iblees (Satan), who was not of those who prostrated (Al-Aaraf, 7: 11).

Verses 40: 64 and 64: 3 tell us that fashioning of images is a reference to the Creators will, praise to Him, to make humans on the best of images, in comparison with His other creations. Verse 3: 6 mentions the fashioning of images during the second creation, in the womb. It points to Gods will, praise to Him, in the selection of the genetic heredity of the fetus from parents and relatives, to form its internal structure and its external image. [52]

( 40: 64).

ۖ ( 64: 3).

ۚ ٰ ( 3: 6).

It is Allah who made for you the Earth a place of settlement, and the sky a (ceiling) structure, and fashioned you, and made your images the best (Ghafir, 40: 64).

He created the heavens and the Earth in truth, and fashioned you, and made your images the best, and to Him is the (final) destination (Al-Taghabun, 64: 3).

It is He who fashions you in the wombs however He wills. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Aali-Imran, 3: 6).

In his book, Al-Asna, Al-Qurtubi mentioned explanations from three interpreters before him, for this Good Name of Allah, "Al-Musawwir."  Ibn Al-Arabis defined it as the One Who made His creations on different images. Al-Khatabi explained differences as a way to enable people to know each other. Ibn Al-Hassar mentioned that this Name includes all necessary characteristics which are required in the invention and fashioning of images. These are capability, knowledge, selection, wisdom, and expertise. This means that fashioning of images comes after creation, as stated in verse 7: 11, mentioned above.

Thus, "Al-Musawwir," praise to Him, is the One Who fashions His creations as He wills, in wonderful systems, which enables them to function internally in the best way possible, and to look externally in the best of images, whether these are living beings or heavenly formations.

It is noteworthy that in our time (15th Hijri Century / 21st Century AD), the Arabic name "Al-Musawwir" has a different meaning from that which has been mentioned above. It refers to the photographer, who uses a camera to produce photographs of people, animals, plants, and natural sceneries.

As such, he/she cannot be called a "Musawwir," because he/she does not intervene in making the internal structure and the external images of the objects which he/she photographs, as this Good Name of Allah conveys. Instead, a more accurate name for such a person should be a recorder of images or a reflecter, as the camera reflects the images of the photographed objects.

Likewise, the sculptor, who makes statues and sculptures, cannot be called a "Musawwir," as thought by Al-Qurtubi. Though he/she mimics the external images of subjects, he/she does not intervene in making their internal structures. In addition, such statues are lifeless, compared with the living creations of Allah, Who shapes their internal structure and external images.

The closest meaning of this Good Name of Allah can be explained by the possible jobs done by various teams of machine makers. Making cars, for example, depends initially on the work of a team of designers, who come up with the ideas which they envision in a future car design. Then, another team may be tasked with the job of finding the right measurements and sizes of the machine components. A third team may write down or/and draw the instructions or design of the machine components, including measurements, sizes, and other details. A fourth team may implement the written instructions or the drawn design, in what is known as manufacturing of the machine components and assembling them together. Finally, a fifth team tests the machine performance and functionality, to make sure that it does what it is supposed to be doing.

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, You are Al-Musawwir (O, Allah, You are the Fashioner, the Shaper), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you to grant me healthy offspring, with the best images, so they can worship You in the best way they can and do the best of deeds.

Nobody should be named as Al- Musawwir, with the definite article (Al), or without it, as only Allah, praise to Him, is the Fashioner (Shaper) of humans, making them in the best proportions and images. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Musawwir (Worshipper of the Fashioner), which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations.

***

27. Ghafir Al-Dhanb (pronounced as ghafirudh dhanbi): Forgiver of Sin      

This Good Name of Allah includes the underlined English letters "gh," which represent the twelfth letter of the Arabic alphabet. This letter is pronounced the same way Parisians in France pronounce the letter -r-).

There are seven Good Names of Allah, which are derived from the same root verb, ghafara (to forgive). These are "Ghafir Al-Dhanb" (Forgiver of Sin), Al-Ghafour (the Perpetual Forgiver), Al-Ghaffar (the Most Forgiving), Khayr Al-Ghafireen (the Best of Forgivers), Dhu Al-Maghfirah (the One with Forgiveness), Wasi'ul Maghfirah (the Vast in Forgiveness), and Ahlul Maghfirah (the Source of Forgiveness).

The root verb ghafara means to forgive and to pardon, while shielding a wrongdoing from becoming known publicly. Ibn Katheer explained that when Allah forgives people, He pardons them without making their wrongdoing known to others. Al-Qurtubi elaborated, mentioning that forgiveness is a promise that Allah, praise to Him, made to the believers who proclaim that there is no other god but Him. He further differentiated between the meanings of the first three Good Names of Allah. Ghafir Al-Dhanb (Forgiver of Sin) is the One Who waives sins and shields shortcomings of sinners. Al-Ghaffar (the Abundantly Forgiving) is the One Who goes too far in forgiving people and hiding their shortcomings. Al-Ghafour (the Forgiving) is the One Who does forgiveness countless times, while shielding the wrongdoing and shortcomings of His worshippers.

The first of these six Good Names of Allah, "Ghafir Al-Dhanb" (the Forgiver of Sin), was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in verse 40: 3, without the definite article (Al), and as the first of four compound Good Names of Allah, as follows:

ۖ ٰ ۖ ( 40: 3).

The Forgiver of Sin, Acceptor of Repentance, Severe in Punishment, Owner of Abundance: There is no deity except Him; to Him is the destination (Ghafir, 40: 3).

Allah, praise to Him, tells us that He forgives all sins, for whoever He wills, except polytheism (associating others as gods with Him), which is an abject fabrication, a tremendous sin (4: 48), and a far astray (4: 116), as we read in the following two verses:

ٰ ۚ ٰ ( 4: 48).

ٰ ۚ ( 4: 116).

Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin (Al-Nissa, 4: 48).

Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly gone far astray (Al-Nissa, 4: 116).

The rationale for the principle of forgiveness is straightening up the life of individuals and society at large. Otherwise, people may continue committing sins and wrongdoing, which may corrupt society and lead to the downfall of the human civilization on Earth. Instead, the promise of forgiveness gives the disobedient sinners the hope of pardoning them, which may lead them to stop committing sins and return back to their Lord, Who promised them forgiveness if they repent and call on Him, asking for forgiveness. They have been promised that their sins will be forgiven, as long as they do not associate other gods with Allah, praise to Him, as we learn from the two verses mentioned above and from the Hadith of the Prophet, pbbuh, which was narrated by Anas Bin Malik, mAbpwh.

In addition, Gods promise of forgiveness encourages people to perform the ways of worship and the good deeds, which result in great benefits to the performing individuals and their societies. This was mentioned in the Hadith, which was narrated by Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, about forgiveness of sins for the believers who, for example, fast the month of Ramadhan and stand for worship on the Night of Decree (Laylatul Qadr).

Further, the Prophet, pbbuh, gave glad tidings to the sinners that Allah, praise to Him, will forgive them if they repent, by purifying themselves (taking a shower), performing prayers, and asking Him for forgiveness, directly after committing a sin. We learn this from the Hadith narrated by Abu Bakr, mAbpwh, which ended with the following verse from the Holy Quran: [53]

ٰ ( 3: 135).

And those who, when they commit an immorality or wrong themselves (by transgression), remember Allah and seek forgiveness for their sins - and who can forgive sins except Allah? - and (who) do not persist in what they have done while they know (Aali-Imran, 3: 135).

The root verb ghafara (to forgive) was mentioned 4 times in the Holy Quran. The first was in reference to Gods forgiveness to Moussa (Moses), pbuh, who oppressed (wronged) himself by committing the sin of killing an Egyptian man, then he called on Allah, praise to Him, for forgiveness (Al-Qassas, 28: 16). It was also used in mentioning Gods forgiveness to Dawood (David), pbuh, after he realized that he passed a hasty ruling, then called on Allah for forgiveness (Sad, 38: 25). In a third verse, it was used in praising believers who stay patient and forgive those who wrong them, as this shows their determination (Al-Shoura, 42: 43). Finally, it referred to the forgiveness of a good mans sins, entering him to Paradise, and making him among the honored, for advising his people to follow Gods Messengers (Ya-Seen, 36: 27). [54]

Various derivatives of the root verb ghafara (to forgive) were mentioned 132 times in 121 verses in the Holy Quran. Examples of the usage of such derivatives include the fact that Allah, praise to Him, forgives whoever He wills to forgive (Aali-Imran, 3: 129), He commanded His Messenger, pbbuh, to ask for forgiveness (Al-Nissa, 4: 106), Ibrahims (Abraham), pbuh, promise to ask his Lord to forgive his father (Maryam, 19: 47), Moussas (Moses), pbuh, calling on Allah to forgive him and his brother (Al-Aaraf, 7: 151), Shuaybs, pbuh, advice to his people to ask their Lord for forgiveness (Hood, 11: 90), Gods promise of forgiveness for believers (Al-Anfal, 8: 4), and that Allah does not punish people while they are asking Him for forgiveness (Al-Anfal, 8: 33). [55]

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, You are "Ghafir Al-Dhanb" (Forgiver of Sin), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you as Your Messenger Ibrahim, pbuh, did: Our Lord, forgive me and my parents and the believers the Day the account is established" (Ibranim, 14: 41). I am also asking You as Your Messenger Nooh did: My Lord, forgive me and my parents and whoever enters my house a believer and the believing men and believing women. And do not increase the oppressors (wrongdoers) except in destruction" (Nooh, 71: 28).

Nobody should be named as "Ghafir Al-Dhanb" (Forgiver of Sin). However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Ghafir (Worshipper of the Forgiver), which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations, as He is the only One Who is capable of forgiveness on the Day of Reckoning.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that a believer is kind and merciful, even towards those who wrong him. He/she does not hesitate in forgiving the wrongdoer, particularly if the latter asks him for pardoning and forgiveness. In doing so, he/she is following Gods way of dealing with the wrongdoers when they ask Him for forgiveness, praise to Him.

28. Al-Ghafour: The Perpetual Forgiver    

 

"Al-Ghafour" (the Perpetual Forgiver) is an adjectival name, derived from the root verb ghafara (to forgive, and to hide shortcomings). It is one of the seven Good Names of Allah, which are derivatives of the same root verb. It is also an amplified form of the adjectival name ghafir.

Thus, "Al-Ghafour" is the One, Who forgives His repentant worshippers, again and again, to an infinite number of acts of forgiving and pardons. So, He is truly the Perpetual Forgiver

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned 91 times in the Holy Quran. In 11 times, it was mentioned with the definite article (Al), and without it in the remaining times.

 

Further, it was mentioned alone once, in verse 17: 25, but with another Good Name of Allah in the remaining 90 times. By adding it to these Names, it has become associated with other meanings, such as mercy, forbearance, pardoning, Lordship, appreciation, and love, as follows: [56]

ۚ ( 17: 25).

( 15: 49).

ٰ ۗ ( 2: 225).

ٰ ۚ ( 4: 99).

ۖ ( 18: 58).

ۚ ( 67: 2).

ۚ ( 35: 30).

( 85: 14).

Your Lord is most knowing of what is within yourselves. If you are righteous, then indeed He is ever, to (those who are) returning (to Him), Perpetually Forgiving (Al-Issra, 17: 25).

(O Muhammed), inform My worshippers that, indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver, the Merciful (Al-Hijr, 15: 49).

Allah does not blame you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He blames you for what your hearts have earned. And Allah is Perpetually Forgiving and Forbearing (Al-Baqara, 2: 225).

For those it is expected that Allah will pardon them, and Allah is ever Pardoning and Perpetually Forgiving (Al-Nissa, 4: 99).

And your Lord is the Perpetual Forgiver, Possessor of Mercy (Al-Kahf, 18: 58).

(He) who created death and life, to test you, which of you is best in deed, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Perpetual Forgiver (Al-Mulk, 67: 2).

That He may give them in full their rewards and increase for them of His bounty. Indeed, He is Perpetually Forgiving and Most Thankful (Appreciative) (Fatir, 35: 30).

And He is the Perpetual Forgiving, the Loving (Affectionate) (Al-Burooj, 85: 14).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, You are "Al-Ghafoor Al-Raheem" (the Perpetual Forgiver, the Merciful), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you as Your Messenger Ibrahim, pbuh, did: Our Lord, forgive me and my parents and the believers the Day the account is established" (Ibranim, 14: 41).

Nobody should be named as "Al-Ghafoor" (the Most Forgiving), whether these are angels, jinn, or humans, as only Allah is the Most Forgiving. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Ghafoor (Worshipper of the Perpetual Forgiver), which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations, as He is the only One Who is capable of forgiveness, again and again, to an infinite number of acts of forgiving and pardons.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that a believer should try to be as forgiving and merciful as possible, even towards those who wrong him, particularly if he/she is asked to do so.  

29. Al-Ghaffar: The Most Forgiving    

 

"Al-Ghaffar" (the Most Forgiving) is an adjectival name, derived from the root verb ghafara (to forgive, and to hide shortcomings). It is one of the seven Good Names of Allah, which are derivatives of the same root verb. It is also an amplified form of the adjectival name ghafir.

 

Thus, "Al-Ghaffar" means "the Most Forgiving," Whose forgiveness is so abundant that it extends to all kinds of sins and wrongdoing, and it is granted to seekers who do not associate other gods with Allah. Thus, this Name is more expressive of the meaning of forgiveness than other Names, followed by Al-Ghafoor, then Al-Ghafir.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned 5 times in the Holy Quran. In 3 times, in verses 38: 66, 39: 5, and 40: 42, it was mentioned with the definite article (Al). In these verses, it was mentioned with another Good Name of Allah, Al-Aziz (the Exalted in Might), which means that Allah, praise to Him, forgives His worshippers, who seek for His forgiveness, from a position of might, power, and capability.

 

Further, this Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in verses 20: 82 and 71: 10. In these verses, Allah, praise to Him, promised granting His forgiveness to the believers who do good deeds, if they repent and ask for His forgiveness, as follows:

 

( 38: 66).

 

... ۖ ۗ ( 39: 5).

 

( 40: 42).

 

ٰ ( 20: 82).

 

( 71: 10).

 

Lord of the heavens and the Earth, and whatever is between them, the Exalted in Might, the Most Forgiving (Sad, 38: 66).

and He has subjected the sun and the moon, each running (its course) for a specified term. Unquestionably, He is the Exalted in Might, the Most Forgiving (Al-Zumar, 39: 5).

You invite me to disbelieve in Allah and associate with Him that of which I have no knowledge, and I invite you to the Exalted in Might, the Most Forgiving (Ghafir, 40: 42).

And indeed, I am Most Forgiving of whoever repents, and believes, and does good (deeds), and then continues in guidance (Ta-Ha, 20: 82).

And (Nooh) said, 'Ask forgiveness of your Lord. Indeed, He is Most Forgiving (Nooh, 71: 10).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta Al-Aziz Al-Ghaffar" (O Allah, You are the Exalted in Might, the Most Forgiving), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you as Your Messenger Ibrahim, pbuh, did: Our Lord, forgive me and my parents and the believers the Day the account is established" (Ibranim, 14: 41).

Nobody should be named as "Al-Ghaffar" (the Most Forgiving), whether these are angels, jinn, or humans, as only Allah is the Most Forgiving. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Ghaffar (Worshipper of the Most Forgiving), which is an appreciation for this great and exclusive capability of Allah, and a recognition of His divinity and Lordship over all of His creations, as He is the only One Who is more capable of forgiveness than anyone else among His creations.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that a believer should try to be as forgiving and merciful as possible, even towards those who wrong him, particularly if he/she is asked to do so.

30. Khayr Al-Ghafireen (pronounced as khayrul  ghafireen): The Best of Forgivers    

 

"Khayr Al-Ghafireen is one of the Good Name of Allah, which is mentioned directly in verse 7: 155 of the Holy Quran. It means that Allah, praise to Him, is the Best of Forgivers to His repenting worshippers, who ask for His forgiveness, which encompasses all types of wrongdoing and sins, as long as the seekers of forgiveness do not take partners with Him.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned in the context of the story of the Children of Israel, who obtained anger from their Lord for their worship of the golden calf. Moussa (Moses), peace be to him, chose seventy of them to go with him for an appointment with Allah, to plead with Him, announce their repentance, and ask for His forgiveness. Allah, praise to Him, forgave them because He is the Best of Forgiver, the Merciful, as we read in verses 7: 152-155.

 

ۚ ٰ ﴿١٥٢﴾

 

﴿١٥٣﴾

 

ۖ ﴿١٥٤﴾

 

ٰ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ﴿١٥٥﴾ ( 7: 152-155).

 

Indeed, those who took the calf (for worship) will obtain anger from their Lord and humiliation in (this) lower life, and thus, We recompense the committers of falsehood (152)

 

But those who committed misdeeds, then repented after them and believed, indeed, your Lord, thereafter, is Forgiving and Merciful. (153)

 

And when the anger subsided in Moussa (Moses), he took up the tablets, and in their inscription was guidance and mercy for those who are fearful of their Lord. (154)

 

And Moussa (Moses) chose from his people seventy men for Our appointment. Then, when the trembling (earthquake) seized them, he said, "My Lord, if You had willed, You could have destroyed them before and me (as well). Would You destroy us for what the foolish among us have done? This is not but Your trial by which You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our Protector, so forgive us and have mercy upon us; and You are the Best of Forgivers (155) (Al-Aaraf, 7: 152-155).

 

Further, our Lord, praise to Him, has mentioned to us that His mercy has encompassed everything, and he has written (decreed) it for the believers who watch Him in their words and deeds, give charity (zakat), and believe in His Last Messenger, Muhammed, pbbu, whom He mentioned before in the Torah and the Ingeel (Gospel). This has been an invitation for Jews and Christians to accept Islam, to be among the successful in this lower life and in the hereafter, as mentioned in verses 7: 156-157.

 

ٰ ۚ ۖ ۚ ﴿١٥٦﴾

 

ۚ ۙ ٰ ﴿١٥٧﴾ ( 7: 156-157).

 

And write (decree) for us (to lead a good life) in this lower life and in the Hereafter. Indeed, we have turned back to You. (Allah) said, "My punishment, I afflict with it whom I will, but My mercy encompasses everything." So, I will write (decree) it for those who watch Me (in their words and deeds) and give the zakat, and those who believe in Our verses - (156)

 

Those who follow the Messenger, the illiterate Prophet, whom they find written in what they have of the Torah and the Ingeel (Gospel). (He) enjoins upon them what is right and forbids them what is wrong and makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil, and relieves them of their burden and the shackles, which were upon them. So, those who have believed in him, honored him, supported him, and followed the light (the Holy Quran), which was descended with him, those are the successful (157) (Al-Aaraf, 7: 156-157).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta "Khayr Al-Ghafireen (O Allah, You are the Best of Forgivers), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you to forgive me, and my parents, and the believers, the Day the account is established" (Ibranim, 14: 41).

Nobody should be named as "Khayr Al-Ghafireen, as Allah is certainly the Best of Forgivers. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Ghaffar (Worshipper of the Most Forgiving), which is a recognition of his worship to his Creator.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that believers should try to be as forgiving and merciful as possible, even towards those who wrong them, particularly if they are asked to do so.

31. Dhu Al-Maghfira (pronounced as dhul maghfira): Possessor of Forgiveness      

"Dhu Al-Maghfira" is one of the Good Names of Allah, which have been mentioned directly in the Holy Quran. It means that Allah, praise to Him, is the Source and Possessor of Forgiveness, Who has promised it to His worshippers, if they repent and return to Him, as we are told by the Hadiths mentioned above (See End Note 52).

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran twice. In verse 13: 6, it came announcing Gods forgiveness to people, despite their wrongdoing to themselves and to others, while He is going to be Severe in Penalty towards the obstinate tyrants, who insist on their disobedience.

The same meaning is confirmed in verse 41:43, which describes our Lord, praise to Him, as the Possessor of Forgiveness to His worshippers, who ask Him for it. Yet, the verse warns disbelievers with punishment from the One with the Painful Penalty.

Verse 57: 21 points to the fact that Gods forgiveness to His repentant worshippers is a favor He will bestow on them, because He is the One with Great Favors bestowed on all of His creations.

ۗ ٰ ۖ ( 13: 6).

 

ۚ ( 41: 43).

 

ٰ ۚ ٰ ۚ ( 57: 21).

 

They impatiently urge you to bring about punishment (in this life) before good (rewards in the hereafter), while there has already occurred before them similar (punishments). And indeed, your Lord is Possessor of Forgiveness for the people, despite their wrongdoing, and indeed, your Lord is Severe in Penalty (Al-Rad, 13: 6).

 

Nothing is said to you, (O Muhammad), except what was already said to the Messengers before you. Indeed, your Lord is a Possessor of Forgiveness and a Possessor of Painful Penalty (Fussilat, 41: 43).

 

Race toward forgiveness from your Lord and a Garden (Paradise), whose width is like the width of the heavens and the Earth, prepared for those who believed in Allah and His Messengers. That is a favor from Allah, which He gives to whom He wills, and Allah is the Possessor of Favors, the Great (Al-Hadeed, 57: 21).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta "Dhu Al-Maghfira (O Allah, You are the Possessor of Forgiveness), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you to forgive me, and my parents, and the believers, the Day the account is established" (Ibranim, 14: 41).

Nobody should be named as "Dhu Al-Maghfira, as Allah is certainly the Possessor of Forgiveness. However, a boy can be named as Abdul-Ghaffar (Worshipper of the Most Forgiving), which is a recognition of his worship to his Creator.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that believers should try to be as forgiving and merciful as possible, even towards those who wrong them, particularly if they are asked to do so.  

2. Wasi'ul Maghfirah: "The Vast in Forgiveness      

Wasiul Maghfirah (the Vast in Forgiveness) is one of the Good Names of Allah, which was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in verse 53: 32. It means that Allah, praise to Him, has extended His forgiveness to everything He has created in the heavens and the Earth. This includes the intelligent, mandated, and responsible creations of angels, jinn, and humans (53: 31). He has promised them of His forgiveness as long as they avoid the major sins, such as taking (worshipping) other partners with Allah (shirk), and immoralities (53: 32), such as adultery, theft, and drinking alcoholic beverages.

 

﴿٣١﴾

 

ۚ ۚ ۖ ۖ ٰ ﴿٣٢﴾ ( 53: 32).

 

And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the Earth - that He may recompense those who do evil (sins) with (the penalty of) what they have done and recompense those who do good with the best (reward) - (31) (Al-Najm, 53: 31).

 

Those who avoid the major sins and immoralities, only (committing) slight ones. Indeed, your Lord is Vast in Forgiveness. He is most knowing of you, as He produced you from the earth, and as you were fetuses in the wombs of your mothers. So, do not claim yourselves to be pure; He is most knowing of who righteous (32) (Al-Najm, 53: 32).

 

Verse 53: 32 also tells us that Allah, praise to Him, forgives the slight sins (lamam). The three renowned scholars summarized interpretations of their predecessors for the word lamam (slight sins). They mentioned that if sinners quit committing sins, repent, and ask their Lord, Allah, for forgiveness, then these are lamam (slight sins).

 

Another interpretation is given about the difference between committing a sin and that which leads to it. Adultery, for example, is defined by the sexual intercourse, which is a major sin, involving the body sexual organs. However, other body organs may commit adultery too. Thus, the mind, eyes, ears, hands, legs, and lips commit adultery too, as we learn from the Hadith, but these are lamam (slight sins), which can be forgiven by repentance and asking for forgiveness. [57]

 

Further, our Lord, Allah, praise to Him, told us in verses 15: 49 and 18: 58 that He is the Perpetual Forgiver, the Merciful. This means that His trait as a Forgiver is accompanied by His trait as a Merciful. In addition, He told us in verse 6: 147 that He is Vast in Mercy, and that His mercy encompasses everything, as He mentioned in verses 7: 156 and 40; 7. Thus, He, praise to Him, is Forgiving and Merciful for His creations because these are His traits, particularly if His worshippers obey Him, avoid that which He prohibited, repent, and ask for forgiveness if they sin, to gain the mercy and forgiveness, which He promised them.

( 15: 49).

ۖ ( 18: 58).

( 6: 147).

 

ٰ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ۖ ( 7: 155).

 

ٰ ۚ ۖ ۚ ( 7: 156).

 

( 40: 7).

O Muhammed), inform My worshippers that, indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver, the Merciful (Al-Hijr, 15: 49).

And your Lord is the Perpetual Forgiver, Possessor of Mercy (Al-Kahf, 18: 58).

So, if they belie you, (O Muhammad), say, "Your Lord is the Possessor of Vast Mercy; but His might (punishment) cannot be repelled from the people (who are) criminals" (Al-Anam, 6: 147).

 

And Moussa (Moses) chose from his people seventy men for Our appointment. Then, when the trembling (earthquake) seized them, he said, "My Lord, if You had willed, You could have destroyed them before and me (as well). Would You destroy us for what the foolish among us have done? This is not but Your trial by which You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our Protector, so forgive us and have mercy upon us; and You are the Best of Forgivers (Al-Aaraf, 7: 152-155).

 

And write (decree) for us (to lead) a good lower life and (a good life) in the Hereafter. Indeed, we have turned back to You. (Allah) said, "My punishment, I afflict with it whom I will, but My mercy encompasses everything." So, I will write (decree) it for those who watch Me (in their words and deeds) and give the zakat, and those who believe in Our verses (Al-Aaraf, 7: 156).

 

Those (angels) who carry the Throne and those around it exalt (Allah) with praise of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who have believed, (saying): "Our Lord, You have encompassed everything in (Your) mercy and knowledge. So, forgive those who have repented and followed Your way, and protect them from the punishment of the Hellfire (Ghafir, 40: 7).

 

***

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta "Wasiul Maghfira (O Allah, You are the Vast in Forgiveness), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you to forgive me, and my parents, and the believers, the Day the account is established" (Ibranim, 14: 41).

Nobody should be named as "Wasiul Maghfira, as Allah is certainly the One Who is Vast in Forgiveness. However, a boy can be named as Abdul Ghafir, or Abdul-Ghaffar, or Abdul Ghafour, which is a recognition of his worship to his Creator.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that believers should try to be as forgiving and merciful as possible, even towards those who wrong them, particularly if they are asked to do so.

33. Ahlul Maghfirah: The Source of Forgiveness    

"Ahlul Maghfirah" (The Source of Forgiveness) is one of the Good Names of Allah, which was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Verse 74: 56, as follows:

ۚ ٰ ( 74: 56).

But they will not remember, except that Allah wills. He is the Source of Piety (Righteousness), and the Source of Forgiveness (Al-Muddathir, 74: 56).

This Good Name of Allah means that He, praise to Him, is the Source of Forgiveness for His worshippers, who seek for it, and who constantly remember and obey Him.

Al-Tabari explained the meaning of "Ahlul Maghfirah," saying that Allah, praise to Him, has willed that His forgiveness is a right for His repentant worshippers, who ask for it, obey Him, study His Book, and observe that which is written in it. Al-Qurtubi added an explanation provided by Muhammed Bin Nasr, that Allah expects His worshippers to avoid disobeying Him. But if they do not do that, then He will forgive them and have mercy on them, anyway, because He is the Forgiver, the Merciful. Likewise, Ibn Katheer provided Qatadas explanation that Allah expects His worshippers to fear Him. However, He is going to forgive the sins of those who repent and turn back to Him.

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta "Ahlul Maghfira (O Allah, You are the Source of Forgiveness), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you to forgive me, and my parents, and the believers, the Day the account is established" (Ibranim, 14: 41).

Nobody should be named as "Ahlul Maghfira, as Allah is certainly the One Who is Source of Forgiveness. However, a boy can be named as Abdul Ghafir, or Abdul-Ghaffar, or Abdul Ghafour, which is a recognition of his worship to his Creator.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that believers should try to be as forgiving and merciful as possible, even towards those who wrong them, particularly if they are asked to do so.

34. Ahlu Al-Taqwa (pronounced as ahlut taqwa): The Source of Piety and Righteousness     ٰ

"Ahlut Taqwa" (The Source of Righteousness) is one of the Good Name of Allah, which was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Verse 74: 56, as follows:

ۚ ٰ ( 74: 56).

But they will not remember, except that Allah wills. He is the Source of Piety (Righteousness), and the Source of Forgiveness (Al-Muddathir, 74: 56).

This verse means that Allah, praise to Him, is the Source of Righteousness, particularly to His worshippers, who constantly think about and obey Him, until they reach the rank of righteousness, which qualifies them to receive His forgiveness. The Prophet, pbbuh, also told us that Allah, praise to Him, honors and ranks people according to their degree of righteousness, not according to their descent or skin color. [58]

Linguistically, the verb ittaqa means to avoid, be watchful about, shield, and protect somebody from something. Thus, Al-Taqwa (righteousness) means avoiding, shielding, and protecting the human self from punishment in the Hereafter, by observing Gods commands, and avoiding that which He has prohibited, during this lower life. More specifically, Allah, praise to Him, told us in verse 2: 177 that Al-Taqwa (righteousness) is a rank reached by a believing worshipper by doing good deeds, which lead to the rank of Al-Bir, which is rewarded by Gods contentment and His Paradise.

ٰ ٰ ٰ ٰ ۖ ۗ ٰ ۖ ٰ ( 2: 177).

Al-Bir (Piety, Goodness) is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but Al-Bir (Piety, Goodness) is (that which is represented by the) one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets; and (the one who) gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the (needy) traveler, those who ask (for help), and for freeing slaves; (and it is represented by the one who) establishes prayer and gives zakat; (and those who) fulfill their promise when they promise; and (those who) are patient in poverty, and hardship, and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are Al-Muttaqoon (the righteous) (Al-Baqara, 2: 177).

Al-Tabari mentioned that Ahlut Taqwa, as one of the Good Name of Allah, means that Allah, praise to Him, has a right on His worshippers to avoid His punishment in the Hereafter, by obedience to Him during their lower life, by studying His Book and following its teachings, by repentance, and by asking for forgiveness for their sins. Al-Qurtubi added an explanation provided by Muhammed Bin Nasr, that Allah expects His worshippers to avoid disobeying Him. But even if they do not do that, then He will forgive them and have mercy on them, anyway, because He is the Forgiver, the Merciful. Likewise, Ibn Katheer leaned towards Qatadas explanation that Allah expects His worshippers to fear Him. However, He is going to forgive the sins of those who repent and turn back to Him.

The word Al-Taqwa (righteousness) was mentioned 15 times in the Holy Quran, as obedience to Allah. It came together with avoiding arguments, not committing disobedience, and abstaining from sexual intercourse during the Haj (pilgrimage) period (Al-Baqara, 2: 197), with pardoning (Al-Baqara, 2: 237), with cooperation in doing good deeds (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 2), justice (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 8), covering the private parts (Al-Aaraf, 7: 26), establishing deeds on good intentions (Al-Tawba, 9: 109), commanding family members to perform prayers (Ta Ha, 20: 132), glorification for the Haj rituals (Al-Haj, 22: 32), descent of Gods calmness (assurance) on the Prophet and the believers (Al-Fath, 48: 26), lowering voices in the presence of the Prophet (Al-Hujurat, 49: 3), confidential conversations about good, not about sin and aggression (Al-Mujadila, 58: 9), studying the Holy Quran and following its teachings (Al-Muddathir, 74: 56), and with the purified self (Al-Shams, 91: 8-9).

In addition to the description of the righteous worshippers in verse 2: 177, mentioned above, other verses added more of their good deeds. In their wills, the righteous allocate money to their parents and relatives (Al-Baqara, 180), they do not transgress on others (Al-Baqara, 2: 194), give divorced women their rights (Al-Baqara, 2: 241), keep their promises (Al-i-Imran, 3: 76), do good deeds (Al-i-Imran, 3: 115), make their deeds purely for Allah (Al-Tawba, 9: 194), fulfill their promises (Al-Tawba, 9: 4, 7), observe the sanctity of the sacred months (Al-Tawba, 9: 36), and fight for the sake of Allah with their money and with their selves (Al-Tawba, 9: 44, 123).

Allah, praise to Him, has promised great rewards to Al-Muttaqeen (the righteous ones), as mentioned in 16 verses of the Holy Quran. They have been promised good life in this lower life and better in the Hereafter (Al-Nahl, 16: 30), were given the Holy Quran as glad tidings to them (Al-i-Imran, 3: 97), Allah has considered them as the best of the believers (Sad, 38: 28), Allah is their Protector (Al-Jathiya, 45: 19), on the Day of Gathering, they come to their Creator as an honored delegation ((Maryam, 19: 85), on that Day, other humans wish if they were among them (Al-Zumar, 93: 57), when the Hour comes, starting the Last Day, they do not have to fear it or be sad about what is going to happen (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 67), on the Day of Judgment, they will be in a safe position (Al-Dukhan, 44: 51), their ultimate reward in the Hereafter will be living in gardens, with rivers flowing bellow them (Al-Nahl, 16: 31), for them are chambers, above them chambers built, beneath which rivers flow (Al-Zumar, 39: 20), in gardens with springs (Al-Hijr, 15: 45; Al-Dhariyat, 51: 15), in gardens and in bliss (Al-Toor, 52: 17), in gardens with rivers (Al-Qamar, 54: 54), in shades with springs (Al-Mursalat, 77: 41).   

Allah, praise to Him, commanded His worshippers to avoid His anger, punishment, and torture in the Hellfire, on the Last Day, by using the imperative plural verb ittaqoo (avoid harm, shield, and protect yourselves), 81 times, in 77 verses of the Holy Quran. He said: avoid the Fire, whose fuel is people and stones, prepared for the disbelievers (Al-Baqara, 2: 24), avoid the Fire, prepared for the disbelievers (Al-i-Imran, 3: 131), "And avoid (the punishment on) a Day when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be taken from it, nor will they be aided" (Al-Baqara, 2: 48), And avoid (the punishment on) a Day when you will be returned to Allah. Then, every self will be compensated for what it earned, and they will not be treated unjustly (Al-Baqara, 2: 281), O humankind, avoid (the punishment of) your Lord, and fear a Day when no father will avail his son, nor will a son avail his father at all (Luqman, 31: 33), when it is said to them: Avoid (the punishment for) that which is between your hands and that which is behind you (your current and past sins),  so you may have (Gods) mercy (Ya-Seen, 36: 45).

Allah, praise to Him, pointed that avoiding His anger is by belief in Him and in the last of His Prophets and Messengers. He said: O you who have believed, avoid (the punishment of) Allah and believe in His Messenger (Al-Hadeed, 57: 28), obey Allah and His Messengers (Al-i-Imran, 3: 50; Al-Ma-ida, 5: 112; Al-Anfal, 8: 1; Al-Shuara, 26: 108, 110, 126, 131, 132, 144, 150, 163, 179, 184; Al-Zukhruf, 43: 63; Al-Hujurat, 49: 1), And whatever the Messenger has given you, take it; and what he has forbidden you about, refrain from it (Al-Hashr, 59: 7), O you who have believed, do not put (your opinions before the teachings of) Allah and His Messenger (Al-Hujurat, 49: 1), follow the Book of Allah (Al-Anam, 6: 155), do not disbelieve in Allah (Al-Nissa, 4: 131), and do not die except as Muslims (Al-i-Imran, 3: 102).

Allah, praise to Him, pointed that avoiding His anger is also by doing good deeds and avoiding wrongdoing. So, He said: And it is not righteousness to enter houses from the back, but righteousness is (represented by the) one who avoids (the punishment of) Allah. And enter the houses from their doors (Al-Baqara, 2: 189), Whoever commits aggression against you, retaliate against him in the same measure as he has committed against you (Do not exceed) (Al-Baqara, 2: 194), Carry out the Haj and Umrah rituals, as prescribed by Allah to you (Al-Baqara, 2: 196), Your wives are a plowing field for you. So, come to your plowing field whenever you wish, and put forth introductions for yourselves (Al-Baqara, 2: 223), treat your divorced women fairly and nicely (Al-Baqara, 2: 231, 233, Al-Talaq: 65: 1) do not consume usury, doubled and multiplied (Al-Baqara, 2: 278; Al-i-Imran, 3: 130), if you contract a debt for a specified term, write it down (Al-Baqara, 2: 282), thank Allah for His support (Al-i-Imran, 3: 123), Be patient, and advocate patience, and remain stationed (in your positions) (Al-i-Imran, 3: 200), maintain good treatment to relatives, whether (these are related to you) through wombs, spouses, or humanity (Al-Nissa, 4: 1), cooperate in (doing) Bir (good deeds, piety), but do not cooperate in (committing) sin and aggression (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 2), eat from the good foods allowed to you (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 4, 88, 96; Al-Anfal, 8: 69), and mention the favor of Allah bestowed on you (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 7).

Allah, praise to Him, has also ordered His righteous worshippers, to be witnesses in justice and be just, with enemies and friends alike (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 8, 108), to depend on Him (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 11), seek the means of nearness to Him (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 35), do not take those who have taken your religion in ridicule and amusement as allies (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 57), avoid evil manifestations, even if they are impressive (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 100), if a thought of from Al-Shaytan (Satan) assaults you, remember Allah (Al-Anam, 7: 201), avoid a tumult (sedition), which strikes both the victims and the transgressors (Al-Anfal, 8: 25), stand with the truthful ones (Al-Tawba, 9: 119), do not do that which the people of Loot (Lot) did (Hood, 11: 78; Al-Hijr, 15: 69), travel throughout the Earth and see what was the end of those before you (Yousuf, 12: 109), speak with true words (Al-Ahzab, 33: 70), make peace and reconciliation between believers (Al-Hujurat, 49: 10), avoid baseless suspicion, spying, and back biting (Al-Hujurat, 49: 12), do not converse secretly with sin, aggression, and disobedience to the Messenger, but converse with goodness and righteousness (Al-Mujadila, 58: 9), let every self (the accountable part of the soul) look to what it has put forth for tomorrow (the Day of Accountability) (Al-Hashr, 59: 18), be just in determining compensations (Al-Mumtahina, 60: 11), and listen and obey (to Allah and His Messenger), and spend for the sake of Allah (Al-Taghabun, 64: 16).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta "Ahlut Taqwa (O Allah, You are the Source of Righteousness), praise to You, there is no other god but You. I am asking you to help me be among Your righteous worshippers, and to shower me with Your mercy. Then, the supplicant can ask for other favors, and for other people.

Nobody should be named as "Ahlut Taqwa, as this is a compound name, which is referring to Allah as the One Who is the Source of Righteousness. Thus, no boy should be called Taqi (Righteous), and no girl should be called Taqiya (Righteous female) because this is a self-praise title, that believers should abstain from according to themselves, following the command of Allah: Do not claim yourselves to be pure (Do not praise yourselves) (Al-Najm, 53: 32).

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah means that believers should struggle to be righteous, following the commands of Allah, in their words and their deeds.

35. Al-Qahir: The Subduer    

 

"Al-Qahir" (The Subduer) is one of the Good Names of Allah, which was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran. In verse 6: 18, it came together with two other Good Names of Allah: Al-Hakeem (the Wise) and Al-Khabeer (the Acquainted, the Expert). This means that Allah is the Subduer over His creations, for a wisdom known to Him, as well as for an acquaintance and expertise about them, and about what is good for them. It also came in verse 6: 61 together with the ultimate proof of His subdual (subduing) of His creations, which is their ultimate death, towards the avoidance of which they have no power.

 

ۚ ( 6: 18).

 

ۖ ٰ ( 6: 61).

 

And He is the Subduer over His worshippers. And He is the Wise, the Acquainted (of all things) (Al-Anam, 6: 18).

 

And He is the Subduer over His worshippers, and He sends over you guardian (angels) until, when death comes to one of you, Our messengers take complete his record, and they do not fail (in their duties) (Al-Anam, 6: 61).

 

Linguistically, "Al-Qahir" (The Subduer) is a derivative of the root verb /qahara/ (to subdue), which means to dominate and to prevail over. Thus, Allah, praise to Him, is the Subduer over His creations with His power and ability, whether they like it or not. In His messages to them, He has shown them evidence of His Godhood, reminded them of their limited life spans and capabilities, and warned them of the Day they will be standing helplessly before Him for reckoning, in the hereafter.

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta "Al-Qahir" (the Subduer), praise to You, help me to subdue my desires, enable me to avoid being subdued by human and jinni shaytans (satans), and not to be one of the wretched tyrants, who subdue Your good worshippers.

Nobody should be named as "Al-Qahir" (the Subduer), with the definite article (Al), as this is a Good Name of Allah, which refers to His unique capability to subdue all of His creations. Further, no boy should be called "Qahir" (Subduer), without the definite article either, in avoidance of self-praise, which is discouraged, as explained above, in the Name of Alut Taqwa. However, a boy can be named as Abdul Qahir (Worshipper of the Subduer), which is a recognition of his worship to his Creator.

Living up to the meanings of this Good Name of Allah is encouraged and will be rewarded by Allah. It means that believers should struggle in following the commands of Allah, in their words and their deeds, towards better life for them, their families, their societies, and humanity as a whole.

In this sense, Al-Ghazali mentioned that a Qahir worshipper of Allah is a believer who subdues his/her human and jinni enemies by subduing his/her desires first. Al-Qaradhawi added that, in addition to subduing the self, believers should struggle against the human shaytans (satans), who corrupt societies and distort religious teachings, whether these are the rulers or the ruled.

Moreover, a believer should work for the good of humanity, as a whole, by telling the truth, being guided by it, spreading it among people, and rebutting (uncovering) falsehoods, wherever they come from, on a global scale, particularly because that has become available to everyone, as a result of the information and communication revolutions, which we evidence today.

36. Al-Qahhar: The Prevailing Subduer    

 

"Al-Qahhar" (the Prevailing Subduer) is an adjectival name, derived from the root verb qahara (to subdue), which means to dominate and to prevail over. It is also an amplified form of the adjectival name qahir, which shares the same root verb. 

 

Thus, Allah, praise to Him, is the Prevailing Subduer over His creations, with His power and ability, whether they like it or not. He subdues His creations by death in their lower life and by resurrecting them for accountability before Him, in the hereafter.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, associated with another Good Name of His, the One, to mean that His the only One God, the Prevailing Subduer of His creations, wherever they exist in His vast dominion, in this life and in the hereafter.

Verse 12: 39 mentions that Allah is the One God and that He is the Prevailing Subduer. Thus, the verse refers to the falsehood of the belief in multiple gods (polytheism), as was the case in Egypt when Prophet Yousuf, peace be to him, was thrown into prison. Verse 13: 16 adds the trait of Allah as the Creator of everything, meaning that He is capable of subduing everything He has created. In verse 14: 48, this Good Name of Allah is associated with the Day of Rising, when His creations rise helplessly for accountability before him. Verse 38: 62 refers to Allah, as the One, the Prevailing Subduer, Who has sent His Messengers to warn the tyrants and the disbelievers among His creations.

Verse 39: 4 stated that if Allah wanted to have a son, He could have chosen from what He created whatever He willed, but He, praise to Him, did not want that, because He does not need anyone of His creations, as He is the One God, the Prevailing Subduer. Verse 40: 16 provides us with another example about the meaning of two Good names of Allah. It states that on the Day of Rising, people rise before their Creator for reckoning, without being able to hide anything from Him. At that moment, He asks rhetorically: To whom belongs sovereignty Today? None of His creations will be able to speak, in answering Him, including the angels, with the exception of those who will have permission from Him to do so (Al-Naba, 78: 38). He then answers Himself: To Allah, the One, the Prevailing Subduer.

( 12: 39).

... ( 13: 16).

ۖ ( 14: 48).

ۖ ٰ ( 38: 62).

ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 39: 4).

ۖ ٰ ۚ ۖ ( 40: 16).

O (my) two companions of prison, are separate lords better or Allah, the One, the Prevailing Subduer? (Yousuf, 12: 39).

Allah is the Creator of everything, and He is the One, the Prevailing Subduer (Al-Rad, 13: 16).

On the Day the Earth will be replaced by another Earth, and the heavens (as well), and all (creatures) will come out before Allah, the One, the Prevailing Subduer (Ibrahim, 14: 48).

Say, (O Muhammad), "I am only a warner, and there is not any deity except Allah, the One the Prevailing Subduer (Sad, 38: 62).

If Allah had intended to take a son, He could have chosen from what He creates whatever He willed. Exalted is He; He is Allah, the One, the Prevailing Subduer (Al-Zumar, 39: 4).

The Day they come forth nothing concerning them will be concealed from Allah. To whom belongs sovereignty this Day? To Allah, the One, the Prevailing Subduer (Ghafir, 40: 16).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it: Allahumma, Anta "Al-Qahhar" (the Prevailing Subduer) over your creations, praise to You, help me to subdue my desires, enable me to avoid being subdued by human and jinni shaytans (satans), and not to be one of the wretched tyrants, who subdue Your good worshippers.

Nobody should be named as "Al-Qahhar" (the Prevailing Subduer), with the definite article (Al),