Al-Jazeerah
Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Al-Qus (Jerusalem)

 

Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar 

Table of Contents 

I. Introduction: Basic Information  

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction  

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan   

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity   

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an  

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth  

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?   

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings   

9. Spirit, Soul, Mind, Self, and Happiness, from an Islamic Perspective

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an   

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure 

11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith 

12. Performing Islamic Prayers 

13. Giving Zakah (Charity) 

14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims 

15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar 

16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran   

17. Angels 

18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran    

19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran 

20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran 

21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran   

22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

24. The Last Day: The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran 

2. The No (La) Commands 

3. The Imperative Commands 

*** 

Articles with Islamic Perspective: 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective  

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture  

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews  

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings  
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens   

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with  

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007 

Links to Islamic topics 2006 

Links to Islamic topics 2005 

Links to Islamic topics 2004 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003  

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

 

Islam:

A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

16

Allah,

Praise to Him in His Highness

As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

1st Day of Jumada Al-Thani, 1442, December 16, 2020

 

 

 

    1442     2020

 

 

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

 

A'oudhu Billahi Minashaytan irrajeem

Bismillah irra'hman irra'heem

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Introduction  

This Chapter is About Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala), as He has described Himself in the Holy Quran. It attempts to provide information about Who He is and what He wants for us, humans.

It is divided into seven sections. The first includes explanations for the meanings of the most cited Good Names of God. The second section addresses Gods physical features, which He has mentioned in the Holy Quran. In the third section, there is an attempt to explain why Allah has created humans, on Earth, and what He wants for them. The fourth section is the largest in this chapter, as it lists the Good Names of Allah, which are mentioned directly in Holy Quran, with verse references and explanation of each Name. The fifth section includes some of the attributes of Allah, which have been mentioned by other authors, who considered them, incorrectly, as Good Names of Allah. This is followed by the sixth section, which provides a table containing the 127 listed Good Names of Allah mentioned in the fourth section. Finally, the seventh section is provided as a table, which contains the 99 Good Names of Allah, as selected by this author in response to the Prophets call to Muslims. This list is selected from the larger list mentioned in the fourth and sixth sections, after the exclusion of other Names, which are derivatives of the same verb. 

This author is solely responsible for both the specific translation of verse meanings and the summary translation of verse interpretations, which are attributed to the cited Islamic scholars. 

First, the most cited Good Names of Allah

In Verse 98 of Surat Al-Na'hl (Chapter 16) of the Holy Quran, Allah praise to Him instructs Muslims to "seek refuge with Him from the Stoned Shaytan (Cursed and expelled Satan)" whenever they start reciting the Holy Book. This also applies to prayers, before starting the recitation of the first Chapter of the Holy Quran, and at the start of any action, to be shielded against the evil of the Shaytan whispering. In addition, the description of the Shaytan (Satan) as "Stoned" is a reference to the story of Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be upon him, who threw stones at the Shaytan, when he tried to dissuade him away from obedience to Allah, as we learn from the Hadith. [1]
 
Thus, we start this Chapter about the Good Names of Allah, saying:

 
ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

One of the best ways to know about Allah is by studying His Good Name, which He has mentioned in His Book and final Message to humanity, the Holy Quran. The most cited of these Names among Muslims is "Allah, followed by Ar-Ra'hman, Ar-Ra'heem, Rabbul-'Aalameen, Al-A'had, As-Samad, Al-'hayyu, Al-Qayyoom, and Nooru as-samawati wal ardhi. 

1. Allah: The God 

"Allah" is the name which the Great Creator, praise to Him, has described Himself with in three verses of the Holy Quran. In Verse 14 of Surat Taha (Chapter 20), He declares that there is no other god but Him. Therefore, His creations have to worship Him, particularly by establishing prayers, in which His name is constantly mentioned. In Verse 9 of Surat Al-Naml (Chapter 27), He follows His name Allah with two other Good Names of His, the Exalted in Might and the Wise. In Verse 30 of Surat Al-Qassas (Chapter 28), He declares that He is Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, which means that He is the Educator, the Guardian, and the Source of Sustenance for His creations. As a result, He is worthy of being worshipped by His creations as an expression of gratitude for His blessings, which include life, care, provision, and the promise of everlasting life in the hereafter for the human and jinni righteous believers among them.

ٰ   ( 20: 14). *

  ٰ   ( 27: 9).

ٰ ( 28: 30). 

Indeed, I am Allah. There is no other god except Me. So, worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance (Ta Ha, 20: 14).

O Moussa (Moses), indeed, I am Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-Naml, 27: 9).

O Moussa (Moses), indeed I am Allah, Lord of the worlds (Al-Qassas, 28: 30).

***

Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has created humans and Jinn to worship Him, as stated in Verse 56 of Surat Al-Dhariyat (Chapter 51). Though He does not need them to worship Him (51: 57, 35: 15, and 22: 37). Rather, He has commanded them to do so for their own benefit, as individuals, groups, and societies, as stated in many verses of the Holy Quran, such as 2: 271-272, 17: 7, 22: 37 and 62: 9.

Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, is so loving and caring for His human and jinn creations that He sent them messages, to show them how they can be happy during their first (lower) life and in the Hereafter. Basically, He told them to be good to themselves, to their families and relatives, to their society, and to the world. That is the essence of worshipping Him through proclaiming the faith, performing prayers, giving charity, fasting Ramadan, making the pilgrimage, and doing as many good deeds to each other as they can.

By worshipping their Creator, they enjoy happiness in this life, in addition to pleasing their loving and caring Creator, Who has promised to reward them an everlasting life in Paradise, in the Hereafter (More on the benefits of these ways of worshipping God can be found in Chapter I. 8, "The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical in Islamic Teachings."

The word "Allah" means "the God," or "Al-Ilah." In addressing God, a Muslim may say in Arabic "Ilahi" (my God). However, Muslims usually refer to God with the definite article, Al, contracted with the noun it defines, to become Allah, thus addressing Him with "Ya Allah," which means "O Allah." [2]

2. Al-Ra'hman, Al-Ra'heem: The Beneficent, The Merciful   ٰ

These two Good Names of Allah are mentioned in the first Verse of Chapter 1 (Surat Al-Fati'ha), known as "Al-Basmala," and in many other verses throughout the Holy Quran.

"Al-Ra'hman, Al-Ra'heem" are  pronounced as arra'hman, arra'heem, as the definite article "Al" is contracted with the noun, deleting the letter ( l ) and replacing it with the first letter of the defined noun, ( r ). Adding an apostrophe before the letter h indicates an Arabic glottal sound, which has no equivalence in English.

The renowned Islamic scholars, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Katheer, [3] related explanations of these two Good Names of Allah from Abu Ali Al-Farisi and Al-'Arzami, may Allah be pleased with them, who said that Al-Ra'hman (The the Beneficent) is a reference to God's mercy to all of His creations, as expressed in providing them with what they need and enabling them to enjoy His provisions. However, Al-Ra'heem (The Merciful) is a reference to God's extra mercy to the believers.

While most translators of the Holy Quran agreed on the translation of "Al-Raheem" as "The Merciful," they differed in translating "Al-Rahman." The two most used translations are "The Beneficent," and "The Compassionate." This author has found that "The Beneficent" is a more accurate translation on the basis of the above-mentioned interpretation from the cited Islamic scholars.

ٰ ﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤﴾  ( 55: 1- 4). *

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

The Beneficent, (1) has taught the Quran, (2) created the human (being), (3) taught him speech (Al-Rahman, 55: 1- 4).

***

Ibn Katheer interpreted the first four verses of Surat Al-Rahman (55:1- 4), as a statement from Allah, the Beneficent, Praise to Him in His Highness, that He descended the Holy Quran to His worshipper Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh), and made it easy to memorize and understand by believers. Al-Dhahak and Qutada, may Allah be pleased with them, added that He made the Holy Quran easy to be taught to believers so that they use it in telling the truth, enjoining the good, and preaching against the wrongdoing. Al-Hassan, may Allah be pleased with him, interpreted it as enabling believers to pronounce its letters correctly, so that they can recite it in the best and most beautiful ways.

Al-Tabari added that Allah, the Beneficent, extended His mercy to humans by descending His Holy Quran to guide them to success and happiness in this life and to help them avoid His punishment in the hereafter.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned the interpretation of Sa'id Bin Jubair and 'Aamir Al-Sha'abi, who said the letters of the name of Allah, "Al-Ra'hman," are the opening letters of thirteen Suras (Chapters) of the Holy Quran. These are "A, L, R" (the opening letters of Chapters 10-15 ), "H, M" (the opening letters of Chapters 40-46 ), and "N" (the opening letter of Surat Al-Qalam, Chapter 68). Together, these letters form the word, "ALRHMN," which is Al-Rahman, as Arabic words may include only consonants in the basic writing. While vowels are added over or under of a letter (known as tashkeel) in the Holy Quran, the vowels are not usually added in common writings, such as in books and in written media. [4]

These first four verses of Surat Al-Rahman (55:1- 4) tell humans of four blessings bestowed upon them by Allah, praise to Him in His Highness. The first verse tells them that Allah, the Beneficent, has mercy to all of them. The second verse tells them of His second blessing, which is descending the Holy Quran to humanity also as mercy and guidance for them to be happy in this life, as well as in the hereafter. The third verse is a reminder to them that Allah, the Beneficent, created them in the best image, fashion, and proportions. The fourth verse is a reference to the blessing of enabling humans how to speak by creating the physiological features necessary for speech, and by blessing them with the suitable environment, as explained in Chapter 4, "Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran."

3. Rabbul-'Aalameen: The Lord of the Worlds 

This Good Name of God is written as Rab Al-'Aalameen but it maybe pronounced as rabbul 'aalameen, rabbil 'aalameen, or rabbal 'aalameen, depending on its relationship to other words in a sentence, according to the Arabic grammatical rules. Adding an apostrophe before the letter "a" indicates an Arabic glottal sound, which has no equivalence in English. [5]

This Good Name of Allah, Rabbul-'Aalameen, was first mentioned in the second verse of Surat Al-Fatiha (1: 2). Verses 75-82 of Surat Al-Shuara (Chapter 26) of the Holy Quran explaining the word Rab as the One Who guides, feeds, waters, heals, and resurrects people after death. Verses 26: 23-24 tell us about the meaning of the word Al-Aalameen as the worlds of the heavens, the Earth, as well as (that which is) between them.  

﴿٢٣﴾ ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 26: 23-24).

Said Pharaoh, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) (Moussa, Moses) said, "The Lord of the heavens and the Earth, and that (which is) between them, if you should be convinced." (24) (Al-Shuara, 26: 23-24).

Thus, Rabbul 'Aalameen is the Lord of all these worlds where angels, humans, Jinn, and other creations live, with His care, compassion, and kindness.

4. Al-A'had, Al-Samad: The One in the Beginning and in the End, The Ultimate Provider   ٱ

These two Good Names of Allah are mentioned in Verses 1-2 of Chapter 112 (Surat Al-Ikhlas), of the Holy Quran.

ۡ ٕ

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

ٱ (١) ٱ ٱ (٢) ۡ ۡ ۡ ۡ (٣) ۡ  ۥ ڪ ۢ (٤) ( 112: 1- 4).

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan


In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Say: He is Allah, (the) One; (1)

Allah, the Eternal; (2)

He did not beget (give birth) and He was not begotten (given birth to); (3)

And there has never been anyone equal to Him. (4) (Surat Al-Ikhlas, 112: 1 - 4).

Verses 3-4 of Surat Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112) of the Holy Quran explain the meaning of the first Good Name of Allah, mentioned in the first verse, Al-A'had, as the One Who had nobody else with Him at the beginning, nobody else is partner with Him in His dominium, nobody gave birth to Him and He did not give birth to anybody. Nothing is similar or equal to Him, praise to Him in His Highness.

Al-Samad (pronounced as As-Samad) is mentioned as a Good Name of Allah, in the second verse of Surat Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112) of the Holy Quran. It means that He is the source of help, provision, and guidance for those who ask for them. It also means that He is the Ultimate Judge over His creations on the Last Day.

Whoever wants to get part of this divine characteristic needs to fast as much as possible following the path of the Prophet, pbbuh (i.e. several days every month, in addition to the month of Ramadhan), or to eat, drink, and speak as less as possible. He/she also needs to mention this characteristic of God, Al-Samad, as many times as possible during his/her day. This empowers his/her spiritual side and keeps the body desires under control (Surat Al-Ikhlas, Chapter 112, verse 2).

***

5. Al-'Hayyu, Al-Qayyoom: The Eternally Living, The Sustainer of the Universe   

These two Good Names of Allah are mentioned in Verse 255 of Chapter 2 (Surat Al-Baqara) of the Holy Quran, known as "Ayatul Kursi" (Verse of the Chair).

 

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ

 ( 2: 255). 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Allah! There is no (other) god but He, the Eternally Living, the Maintainer (in charge of all things). Neither slumber nor sleep seizes Him. His is whatsoever in the Heavens and the Earth. Who is that who intercedes in His presence, except by His permission! (Nobody does).

He knows what is between their hands and what is behind them. And they do not surround a thing of His knowledge except whatever He wills. His Chair encompasses the heavens and the Earth, and it does not fatigue Him to preserve both of them (the Heavens and the Earth), and He is the High, the Great (Al-Baqara, 2: 255).

***

Ibn Katheer, may Allah reward him for his great work, mentioned that the Prophet, pbbuh, said that the Verse of the Chair (2: 255) is the greatest verse of the Holy Quran, because it includes the greatest Name of Allah, Al-Hayyu, Al-Qayyoom. [6]

In addition to Verse 2: 255, these two greatest Names of Allah are also mentioned together in two other verses of the Holy Quran (Al-Imran, 3: 2 and Taha, 20: 111).

Without relation to specific verses, Al-Hayyu means "The Living," and Al-Qayyoom means "The Standing." However, within the context of Verse 2: 255, the two Good Names of Allah are complimentary to each-other, meaning the Eternally Living, Who is Standing, in permanent control of and care for His creations.

While the Name of Allah and the Name of Al-Qayyoom were the only Names mentioned in these three verses, the Name of Al-Hayyu alone was mentioned in two other verses: 25: 58 and 40: 65, as follows:

ۚ ( 25: 58).

  ٰ ۗ ( 40: 65).

And rely upon the Eternally-Living, who does not die, and exalt Him with His praise (Al-Furqan, 25: 58).

He is the Eternally-Living, there is no deity except Him. So, call upon Him, (while being) sincere to Him in religion (Ghafir, 40: 65).

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that the greatest Name of God could be Al-Hayyu. However, it is more likely to be either Allah or Al-Qayyoom, because these two Names were included in the meaning of the Hadith, in its reference to the three mentioned verses. In addition, Al-Hayyu was mentioned alone in two other verses,  and Allah knows better.

***

Further, Al-Qayyoom means that He is Eternally Awake and in control of His universal system, including His Throne, Chair, the Seven Heavens, and the Seven Earths. He takes care of His creations living in them, providing them with the needed life requirements and sustenance.

Al-Hayyu means the Source and Giver of Life. He was the First, before Whom there was nothing and nobody. He is and will be the Last, the Eternally Living, Who does not die, while each one of His creations has its life span, at the end of which he/she dies and his/her record is completed, as discussed in Chapter 9: Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that the Greatest of Gods Names is Al-Hayyu. However, by looking at the three verses mentioned in the Hadith, it is more likely to be Al-Qayyoom, as Al-Hayyu was mentioned in two more verses, not mentioned in the Hadith, and Allah knows better.

***
The three renowned Islamic scholars (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer) divided the "Verse of the Chair" into ten distinct Arabic sentences, and interpreted them mainly, as follows:

Allah! There is no (other) god but He, (means that He is the only God for all creations to worship).

The Eternally-Living, the Maintainer (in charge and control of all things), which means that He was the First and He will be the Last. While His creations die, He never dies. His creations need Him for sustenance, but He does not need anybody.

Neither slumber nor sleep seizes Him, which means that He is the Maintainer of the Universe and the Sustainer of all His creations. He neither sleeps nor even slumbers for a moment. Thus, He knows everything, and He is in control of the heavens, Earth, and that which is in between, at all times.

Whatsoever in the Heavens and the Earth belongs to Him. This means that He alone, without any partners, owns and controls everything and everyone in the Heavens and on the Earth, all are under His power, and all should worship Him alone.

Who is that who intercedes in His presence, except by His permission! This means that nobody dares to intercede for others, that is, to plead with God on behalf of His creations, who will be waiting in suffering for reckoning, on the Day of Judgment, unless Allah permits him/her to do so.

Al-Qurtubi mentioned that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, will permit intersession by the Prophets, scholars, those who fight for His sake (Mujahidoon), and angels, as a way to honor them on the Day of Judgment. He will also allow good believers to intercede for other believers, as they prayed and fasted together in this life. A child may also be allowed to intercede for his/her parents.

The greatest intercession will be permitted only to Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh. He will make a long Sujood (prostration) until Allah tells him to lift his head and ask, and his call will be answered. The Prophet, pbbuh, then asks Allah to quicken reckoning, in order to relieve the believers from suffering under the heat of the son. The Prophet will be asked to do this job of intercession by all of the Messengers of God who preceded him, as they know that Allah loves him most. [7]

He knows what is between their hands and what is behind them. This means that, as an example of God's omniscience and His circumventing (complete) knowledge, He knows what His creations (angels, humans, and jinn) show and what they hide, what they do at their present and what they did in the past, what happens to them in this life and what will happen to them in the hereafter.

And they do not surround a thing of His knowledge, except that whichever He wills. This means that while Allah has complete knowledge about His creations, they do not know anything about His knowledge, except that which He wills for some of them, such as His messages revealed to humans through His Messengers.

His Chair encompasses the Heavens and the Earth. According to Companion Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, the Chair maybe a reference to God's knowledge. However, Abu Malik and other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, narrated some of the Prophets Hadiths about the size of the Chair. The meaning of the Hadiths is that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, sits on the Throne and puts his feet on the Chair. This part of the verse tells us about the size of the Chair, which is so immense that the Heavens and the Earth are encompassed under it. [8]

And it does not fatigue Him to preserve both of them (the heavens and the Earth). This means that it does not tire or fatigue Him to preserve the systems of Heavens and the Earth, including taking care of their structures, functioning, whoever lives on and between them.

And He is the High, the Great. This means that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness (subhanahu wa taala), is higher than all of His creations, including His Throne, His Chair, the systems of Heavens and Earths. He is the Great, in bringing His creations to existence, preserving them, as well as caring and providing sustenance to all who live in them.

6. Nooru as-Samawati wal ardhi: Light of the Heavens and the Earth

This Good Name of Allah is mentioned in Verse 35 of Chapter 24 (Surat Al-Noor) of the Holy Quran, known as Ayatun Nour (Verse of The Light). 

( 24: 35).

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. The similitude of His Light is as a Niche, within which is a Lamp. The Lamp is in a glass (container). The glass (container) is like a bright planet. The light (of the lamp) is produced by fire from a blessed olive tree (oil), which is neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost illuminate, without being touched by fire. Light Upon Light! Allah guides to His Light whom He wills. And Allah gives examples for people (as illustration), and Allah is Knowledgeable of everything (Al-Noor, 24: 35).

 

***

Interpretation of Ayatun Nour (The Verse of The Light):

Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth: Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth and the Guidance for those who dwell in or on them. The Prophet, pbbuh, also told us about this Good Name of Allah. He was asked if He saw Allah when he ascended above the Seventh Heaven, during his Night Journey. He answered: "I saw Light"). [9]

The similitude of His Light is as a Niche, within which is a Lamp: The example of God's Light is like a lamp in a niche, a recess in a wall, which keeps its light concentrated, not dispersed.

The Lamp is in a glass (container): The glass container allows seeing the lamp light, focuses it, and protects it from being extinguished by wind. It is noteworthy that the current electric lamps are also covered with glass containers.

The glass (container) is like a bright planet: The glass containing the lamp appears as a bright planet, as its atmosphere reflects the sun light. So, we see it glittering.  

(The light of the lamp) is produced by fire from a blessed olive tree:

The olive tree has been honored by being mentioned here in verse 24: 35 and in 5 other verses of the Holy Quran. It is a blessed tree for the many benefits it provides people with, such as oil for cooking, lighting, messaging skin, and feeding hair roots. Its beans are also delicious after processing. Finally, the bean seeds are used as firewood for cooking and heating purposes. [10]

which is neither of the east nor of the west:

This means that the blessed tree is growing in the best location of the oil grove. It is in the middle, in a clear distance from other trees. This provides it with several benefits, such as sun light all day, sufficient quantities of air, and enough nutrients from the soil. Consequently, these benefits enable it from producing the best of oil. If it were located at the eastern or western sides of the grove, it would not have been enjoying these benefits, and as a result, would not have been able to produce the best of oil. 

whose oil would almost illuminate, without being touched by fire: Due to its ideal location and the related benefits it gets therein, this blessed tree produces the purest of oil, which almost illuminates, even without being touched by fire.

Light Upon Light: This is a reference to the light of the fire and the light of the oil together, as interpreted by Mujahid and Al-Suddi, mAbpwt both. However, other interpreters added that it is guidance from Allah upon the effort from the believer to learn the Holy Quran and apply it.

Allah guides to His Light whom He wills:

His Light is His Message of Islam to humanity, which was revealed through His Messengers and was completed by the Holy Quran, through the Seal of all Messengers of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh.

Allah, praise to Him, guides to His Light whom He wills, particularly those who believe in Him and do good deeds, follow His commands, and turn back to Him. He will guide them, illuminating their path with His Light. However, He does not guide the wrongdoers, those who are disobedient to Him, disbelievers, and those who insist on their disbelief of Him.  [11]

And Allah gives examples for people (as illustration). So, they can understand.

and Allah is knowledgeable of everything (Al-Noor, 24: 35).

***

The whole verse can be interpreted as the Light of God, as Ibn 'Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, said, or as the Light of the believer, as the four scholars also mentioned. Thus, God's Light is guidance to the believers, assuring them and reinforcing their faith to worship Him. It is like a lamp in a niche. The lamp here is the heart of the believer, which has been lighted with faith, and with learning the Holy Quran and the Sunna. These represent the sources of guidance to faith in God for the believer, just like the good, pure oil as the source for the lamp light.

Al-Qurtubi added that Allah, praise to Him, described the Holy Quran as a "Clear Light" in Verse 174 of Surat Al-Nissa (Chapter 4). He also described Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, as "Light" in Verse 15 of Surat Al-Maeda (Chapter 5). Thus, the believer is guided by the Light of the Holy Quran and the Light of the Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, (his Sunna). He further said that the Light of God in the heart of the believer is like the pure oil, which is about to illuminate (give light) even without fire touching it. As the believer learns the truth from the Holy Quran, his/her faith is reinforced, like the light of the olive oil when it is touched by fire; hence, "Light Upon Light."

In interpreting "Light Upon Light," Ibn 'Abbas said that it is a reference to good deeds of the believer, reflecting his/her faith in God. Mujahid and Al-Suddi, mAbpwt both, said that it means the Light of God and the light of the lamp, or the light of fire and the light of the oil, or the light of the Holy Quran and the light of faith together. Ubay Ibn Ka'b, mAbpwh, interpreted it as light in the believer's speech, deeds, death, and resurrection, as mentioned by Ibn Katheer.

In conclusion, Allah, praise to Him, is Light Upon Light. He is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth. He is also the Light of guidance for His worshippers, through His Messages to them, which He completed by revealing the Holy Quran, through the Seal of His Messengers, Muhammed, pbbuh.  

 

***

***

Second, God's Physical Features

Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) is the One, the Eternal, whom none has ever been equal to, as stated in Surat Al-Ikhlas (112: 1-4). There is nothing like Him, as stated in Surat Al-Shoura (Chapter 42: 11).

 ۚ  ۖ  ۚ  ۖ  ( 42: 11).

The Originator of the Heavens and the Earth, (Allah), has made pairs for you from yourselves, and pairs of cattle, thereby multiplying (in the wombs of females). There is nothing like Him. He is The Hearer, The Seer  (Al-Shoura, 42: 11).

With that stated, several verses of the Holy Quran mention some physical features of Allah. Al-Tabari mentioned that the tradition of early Muslim scholars is to mention these physical features of God, as described in the Holy Quran and the 'Hadith, without trying to equate them with the physical features of humans. Here are some of them: [12]

1. Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has a Face, which illuminates (gives light to) the Throne, as interpreted by scholars, in Ayatul Kursi (The Verse of the Chair) above. Believers direct their prayers and good deeds to the Face of Allah, as in verses 2: 115, 2: 272, 30: 38, 30: 39, and 76: 9 of the Holy Quran. 

 ۚ     ( 2: 115).

( 2: 272).  

( 30: 38).

( 30: 39).

( 76: 9).

To Allah belong (the directions of) the sunrise and the sunset. Whichever (direction) you turn to, there is the Face of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Vast (and) Knowledgeable (Al-Baqara, 2: 115).

Whatever good you spend is for yourselves, (provided that) you give it seeking the Face of Allah. And whatever good you spend shall be repaid to you (in full), you shall not be treated unjustly (Al-Baqara, 2: 272).

And give to the kinsman his due, and to the needy, and to the destitute traveler. That is best for those who want the Face of Allah, and those are the winners (Al-Room, 30: 38)

That which you give in Zakat (charity), wanting the Face of Allah, those (amounts) will be multiplied many times (for you in rewards) (Al-Room, 30: 39).

'We feed you for the Face of Allah, we neither want a reward from you nor gratitude (Al-Inssan, 76: 9).

2. Some verses of the Holy Quran mention that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has a Throne to sit on, as follows;

ٰ  ۖ  ( 7: 54 ).

ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۚ ٰ  ۚ ( 10: 3).

Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days, then sat on the Throne (Al-A'araf, 7: 54).

Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days, then sat on the Throne, governing (His creation). There is no intercessor except by His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Will you not remember? (Younus, 10: 3).

3. The Verse of the Chair (2: 255), mentioned above, tells us that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, has a Chair to put His Feet on, as was also mentioned in the authentic 'Hadith.  [13]

4. The following verses tell us that Allah, praise to Him, has Hands, extending them with provision for His creations and with support for those who believe in Him. With His Hands, He gives or denies that which He wills for whom He wills. He has power over all things.

   ﴿ 3: 73﴾.

     ( 5: 64).

 ( 27: 63).

ٰ  ( 67: 1).

    ٰ ( 3: 26).

The bounty is in the Hand of Allah, He gives it to whomsoever He wills. Allah is Vast, Knowledgeable (Al-'Imran, 3: 73).

The Jews said: "The Hand of Allah is chained." It is their hands, which are chained, and they were cursed for what they said. Rather, His both Hands are extended (with provision), He spends as He wills (Al-Maeda, 5: 64).

And Who sends the winds bearing glad tidings between Both Hands of His Mercy (Al-Naml, 27: 63).

Blessed be He in whose Hand is the Kingdom, He is powerful over all things (Al-Mulk, 67: 1).

Say: 'O Allah, Owner of the Sovereignty (Power). You give the governance to whom You will and take the governance away from whom You will. You exalt whom You will and debase whom You will. In Your Hand is good. You have power over all things (Al-'Imran, 3: 26).

***

The three renowned Muslim scholars related three interpretations for Verse 3: 26, which mentioned the hand of Allah, praise to Him, as follows:

The first interpretation focused on stating that the good, power, and exaltedness are in the Hand of Allah. He gives or denies them to that which He wills. He took them out of the Children of Israel because they rejected God's message, which was delivered to them by Jesus Christ, peace be upon him. Instead, He exalted His Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, by giving him the final and complete Message of God to Humanity.

The second interpretation mentioned that the verse was about the Christians of Najran, in southern Arabia, who worshipped Jesus Christ as God, just because he showed miracles to the Children of Israel, to persuade them to believe in him as a Messenger of God. In this Verse, Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, is telling worshippers of Jesus that only God can exalt somebody like Jesus to perform such miracles, as He is powerful over all things.

The third interpretation was that the verse was revealed in response to a call by Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, who asked Allah, praise to Him, to support Muslims in conquering the Persian and Roman empires. The call was answered when the entire Persian empire was conquered by Muslims and the Persian Nation became a Muslim nation contributing to the spread of Islam in Asia. In addition, most of the Roman empire was conquered by Muslims, particularly eastern (Levant), western (Spain), and southern (North African) Mediterranean coasts. Only the northern Mediterranean coasts stayed under the Roman rule until the rise of the Ottoman empire, when Greece and major parts of eastern Europe became under the Muslim Ottoman rule. 

5. Many verses of the Holy Quran state that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, hears and sees. He is also described as Hearer and Seer, as well as The Hearer and The Seer.

There are 47 verses in the Holy Quran, in which Allah is described as Samee'  (Hearer)." There are 20 verses which describe Him as Al-Samee'a (The Hearer).

There are 42 verses in the Holy Quran, in which Allah is described as "Baseer," (Seer). There are three verses which describe Him as Al-Baseer (The Seer). These are Al-Isra (17 :1), Al-Shoura (42 : 11), and Ghafir (40 : 20).

In the following three verses, Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, states that He hears and sees:

 ۖ ٰ  ( 20: 46).

 ۘ  ﴿ 3: 181.

 ۚ  ( 58: 1).

(Allah) said: Do not fear (the Pharaoh), I am with you: I hear and see (everything) (Ta Ha, 20: 46).

Allah has heard the taunt of those who said: "Allah is poor and we are rich!" We shall write (record) what they said and (write) their killing of the prophets without a right (to do so), and We shall say (to them): "Taste the torture of the (Scorching) Fire (Al-'Imran, 3: 181).

Allah has heard the saying (statement) of (the woman) who argues with you about her husband; and she complains (in prayer) to Allah; and Allah hears your dialogue. Indeed, Allah is Hearer and Seer (Al-Mujadalah, 58: 1).  

6. The human being has a face, eyes, ears, hands, and feet as his/her Creator has His own, which do not necessarily look like those of humans. Thus, Allah, praise to Him, created humans in the best image, as stated in Verse 95: 4.

  ( 95: 4).

Surely We created the human (being) in the Best Image (Al-Teen, 95: 4).

Al-Tabari and Ibn Katheer interpreted the last word of the verse, "Taqweem," as "Soorah," the accurate translation of which is "image." Al-Qurtubi also interpreted it as image but added that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, created human beings on His Image, the Best Image. They have face, eyes, ears, hands, and feet, as He has. They also have some of His traits, which are blown into them from His Spirit, such as justice, mercy, and compassion. He distinguished them from His other creations on Earth by enabling them of walking upright, speaking, knowing right and wrong, and having the capability to choose between them. The same meaning came also in verse 64: 3, as follows:

ۖ ( 64: 3).

He created the heavens and the Earth in truth and made your images in the best of images, and to Him is the (final) destination (Al-Taghabun, 64: 3).

***

***  

Third, why did Allah create humans, on Earth?

 

In this section, there is an attempt to explain why Allah, praise to Him, has created humans, in their lower life on Earth, and what He wants for them.

1. We learn from the Holy Quran that Allah has created the Jinn and humans for the sole purpose of worshipping Him (51: 56). He also told us that we worship Him by performing the five mandatory ways of worship (the proclamation of faith, prayers, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage) and by practicing righteousness (doing good deeds). Thus, worshipping Allah aims at benefiting the worshipper first, then his/her family, community, society, and humanity, in this lower life and in the hereafter, as was discussed in the second part of this book. [14]

He mentioned that He did not create us in vain (23: 115), or playfully. Rather, the creation of the heavens, the Earth, and those in between was a serious endeavor (44: 38-39). In return, He wants His intelligent creations, jinn and humans, to worship Him by observing His commands, which benefits them, as we read in the Holy Quran verses and the Prophets Hadiths. [15]

***  

Allah, praise to Him, explained righteousness (doing good deeds) in three terms: Bir, Taqwa, and Ihsan. Bir (Righteousness) is (practiced by the) one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets, and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask (for help), and for freeing slaves; (and who) establishes prayer and gives zakat; (those who) fulfill their promise when they promise; and (those who) are patient in poverty, hardship, and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the Muttaqoon (righteous) (Al-Baqara, 2: 177).

Thus, it is noteworthy that in verse 2: 177, the term of Bir includes all articles of Iman (faith), two articles (requirements) of Islam (prayer and giving zakat), and some aspects of Ihsan (keeping promises, patience, and truthfulness.). Another observation is that those who do these Bir deeds are also Muttaqoon (righteous).  This means that the Bir good deeds are also the same Taqwa good deeds but performed from two different perspectives. Bir is doing good deeds in obedience to Allah, praise to Him, for the love of doing them, and for knowing of their benefits for the individual, family, and society. Taqwa is also doing the same good deeds, in obedience to Allah, praise to Him, but to avoid His punishment.

There are many verses in the Holy Quran, which mention this meaning for the term of Taqwa. It refers to Gods anger and His punishment (5: 2), avoidance of punishment in the Fire (3: 131), and avoidance of trials or ordeal (8: 25). [16]

The third Quran term for doing good deeds (righteousness) is Ihsan, which is a derivative of the Arabic verb ahsana (to do things better). As such, it means saying and doing as best as a person can, which is possible by following Gods commands, avoiding His prohibitions, and calling for His sake.

The Holy Quran tells us that Allah commands Ihsan (16: 90), in words and deeds (41: 33), commands good treatment of parents (17: 23), praises those who practice Ihsan by declaring His love for them (2: 195), assures them that they should not be afraid or sad (2: 112), and promises them with great rewards in His Paradise (5: 85). [17]

Many verses of the Holy Quran tell us that Ihsan is represented by spending in the way of Allah and by not committing self-inflected harm (2: 195), restraint and forgiveness (3: 134), by not corrupting the Earth and by calling on Allah, looking for His rewards and for avoidance of His punishment (7: 56), by being sincere in following Gods commands and teachings of His Messenger (9: 91), by patience (11: 115), by practicing Taqwa (22: 37), and by fighting for His sake ((29: 69). [18] 

The Prophet, pbbuh, provided us with examples on the practical application of the three terms. In one Hadith, he said that Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you are seeing him, and while you do not see Him, He truly sees you. Thus, I'hsan is saying and doing only that which pleases Allah and conforms to His commands. This is the level of righteousness, perfection, as well as doing and saying the ultimate good for the sake of goodness and righteousness, to the persons best knowledge and ability.

In another Hadith, he said that he was sent to complete (teach people) the best of manners. In a third Hadith, he defined Taqwa, as truth of the tongue, purity of the heart from sinning, transgression, or envy. It is good manners and love of the latter life more than this lower life. In a fourth Hadith, he said: Do not envy, desert (avoid), hate, plot against each other, or do ill outbidding. Be worshippers of Allah and brothers. A Muslim is a brother to a Muslim, he does not transgress on him, let him down, or despise him. Taqwa is here (pointing to his chest). Despising a Muslim brother is an evil act. It is prohibited to violate a Muslims blood, wealth, and honor (women). [19]

***

2. If we think about effects of performing the mandatory ways of worship (Ibadat) and doing good deeds (Bir, Taqwa, and Ihsan) on people, it becomes clear that these are ways to train humans to be good beings during their lower life on Earth,  to prepare them to be better beings in the latter life. Thus, they become qualified to inhabit Gods universe and lead an everlasting life in His Paradise, which is as wide as heavens and Earth, ready to house the righteous ones.

The Holy Quran tells us that Allah has created heavens and Earth as well as death and life, to try people and see who is the best in deeds? (11: 7, 67: 1-2). He made heavens and Earth, day and night, as well as the sun, the moon, and the stars for the benefit of humans (35: 13, 16: 12). Further, He encouraged jinn and humans to travel in space and attempt to enter regions of heavens (55: 33). He declared that He prepared Paradise, which is as wide as heavens and Earth, for the righteous ones, those who practice Taqwa (3: 133). We are also told that those who believe and do good deeds will enter gardens (of Paradise), leading an everlasting life therein (4: 57). Those are the best of humans (58: 7-8). However, those who disbelieve in God's verses (4: 56), and disobey Allah and His Messenger, will be doomed in the Hellfire, forever (72: 22-23). [20]

The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, gave us examples about the categories of people who are going to end up in Paradise or the Fire. He said that while the weak and the needy will gain the mercy of Allah and enter His Paradise, the tyrants and the arrogant ones will gain His discontent and enter the Fire. In another Hadith, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said that when believers are cleared from the Fire, they get out to a bridge between the Fire and Paradise, where they are held accountable for injustices they commit against each other, during their lower life. After their refinement and purification over there, they will be permitted to enter Paradise. In a third Hadith, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said that ultimately people will enter Paradise from any of its eight gates, if they proclaim that there is no other god but Allah and Muhammed is the worshipper of Allah and His Messenger, as well as Eissa (Jesus) is the worshipper of Allah, His Messenger, His Word He threw to Maryam, and a Spirit of Him. [21]

***

3. Thus, by commanding humans to perform the mandatory ways of worship and doing good deeds, Allah, praise to Him, wants their good in their lower life and in the hereafter. While He is in no need for their worship (35: 15), He rejoices their righteousness (22: 37), which is based on their free will (76: 3, 90: 10). He has known that many humans are going to be good, in words and deeds, as He told His skeptical angels: I know that which you do not know (2: 30).

Moreover, Allah, praise to Him, does not like to punish people if they are grateful and believe in Him (4: 147). He even may not pay attention to them if they do not call on Him (25: 77). If He holds people accountable for their wrongdoing during their lower life, He will destroy them, but He is delaying their punishment (16: 61). If people disbelieve, after their belief in Allah, He will replace them with other people who love Him, and He loves them (5: 54). [22]

The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, told us about some categories of believers, whom He loves because they have some of His characteristics. He is generous and giver. He likes high manners and hates low behaviors. In another Hadith, he said that Allah likes it for a person to do his/her good deed as perfect as possible. In a third Hadith, he said that the true good (rewards for a persons work) is that of the hereafter (not that which one receives in the lower life). [23]

***

4. In conclusion, the human caliphate (mandate to rule over Earth) is an honor bestowed on humans by their Creator, praise to Him (17: 70). It is also a piece of evidence that He trusts them to be responsible and successful in the test of their lower life (33: 72-73, 11: 61). Such success leads many of them to become good beings by choice, which qualifies them to be able to inhabit Gods Paradise, in His vast universe, in the hereafter (7: 43). [24]   

To encourage Muslims to be successful in their lower life test, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, advised them to lead a life of a stranger or a traveler. He also advised them to do the best of deeds, which would benefit them most in the hereafter. These are a continuing charity, such as an endowment, knowledge which benefits people, and leaving behind good children, who supplicate to Allah to make them of the people of Paradise. The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, also gave believers the glad tiding that their Lord has prepared for them that which no eye has ever seen, no ear has every heard, and no human has ever been able to imagine about the pleasures of their life in His Paradise. [25]

***

***

Fourth, the Good (Most Beautiful) Names of Allah (Full List)

This section of the Chapter contains a list of the Good Names of Allah. Each name is referenced by citing some of the verses which contain it in the Holy Quran. Then, it is explained according to the meanings understood from the verses, including the interpretations of the three renowned Muslim scholars, particularly from Al-Qurtubi's famous book, Al-Asna (which is totally devoted to the explanation of the Good Names of Allah). Finally, a list of God's Good Names is reached, on the basis of direct citation from the Holy Quran. 

Some translators translated the "Good Names of Allah" also as the "Most Beautiful Names of Allah."

There are many websites in Arabic and English which mention, list, or translate the Good Names of God. Some Arabic websites provide citations for the verses which mention them, as well as interpretations and explanations of their meanings. Others just mention one-word translation for each name without interpretations or explanations. Almost all of these websites use a traditional list which combines some of the Good Names of God (which are stated clearly in the Holy Quran) with God's Attributes concluded as a result of mentioning verbs or adjectives related to Him. [26]

This author is providing readers with the following list, which is different from the above-mentioned lists in that it only includes the Good Names of Allah, which are mentioned clearly and directly in the Holy Quran, with citation for some of the verses they are mentioned in.  

The following includes the full list of 127 Good Names of Allah, which this author could identify. Some of them are variants of the same verb root but they are all authentic and directly mentioned in the Holy Quran. Thus, this list includes more of the Good Names of God than the traditional lists of the ninety-nine names.

This is followed by a shortened list of 99 Good Names of Allah, which are single names, without qualifying adjectives with them. As such, it is an effort to search for and study the Good Names of Allah, as we were instructed by Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of God be upon him. However, this author does not claim that his list is exclusive. Actually, he encourages other researchers to continue the work of finding and studying more and more of God's Good Names in the Holy Quran.

Allah, praise to Him, mentions His Good Names and invites us in using them on calling upon Him, as in the following four verses:  

( 7: 180).

( 17: 110).

( 20: 8).

( 59: 24). 

To Allah belong the Good Names, so call upon Him by them, and keep away from those who distort His names. They will be punished for what they do (Al-A'araf, 7: 180).

Say: "Call upon Allah, or call upon Al-Ra'hman (The Beneficent), whatever (name) you call upon Him, to Him belong the Good Names (Al-Issra, 17: 110).

Allah! There is no (other) god but He. To Him belong the Good Names (Ta Ha, 20: 8).

He is Allah, the Creator, the Evolver, the Fashioner. To Him belong the Good Names (Al-'Hashr, 59: 24).  

***

Likewise, Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh) told us to use the Good Names of Allah, in calling upon Him. He added that we only know some of these Names, which are revealed in the Holy Quran. However, there are others, which have not been revealed to us.

: " ... ."

Companion Abdullah Bin Massaud, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: O Allah Im asking you with every one of your Names, that with which you called Yourself, or You revealed in Your Book, or You taught one of Your Creations, or that which is unknown to us because You kept to Yourself. Im asking you to make the Quran the spring (pleasure) of my heart, the light of my chest, the end of my sadness, and the going of my negative thinking about the future.  [27]

In another 'Hadith narrated by the Prophet's Companion Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him (mAbpwh,), who said, the Prophet, pbbuh, said:

To Allah, there are ninety-nine names, one hundred minus one. Whoever studied (and believed in) them would enter Paradise. Allah is One. He likes this witr characteristic (The witr is an odd number, such as ninety-nine - Author's explanation).

:

" ." [28]  
 

Shaikh Maher Bin Dhafer Al-Qa'htani commented on the meaning of this Hadith saying that it does not mean that the Names of God are limited to these ninety-nine Good Names. The objective is to encourage Muslims to study the Holy Quran and the Sunna, searching for the Names of God, learning about them, and observing the teachings learned from them. Thus, Al-Qa'htani would support Al-Tirmidhi's opinion (narrated by Ibn Katheer)  that the Prophet's above-mentioned 'Hadith did not list the ninety-nine Good Names, leaving it to Muslims to search for them. [29]

***

A List of the 127 Good Names of Allah, Which Are Mentioned Directly in the Holy Quran

The following is a list of the Good Names of Allah, which includes 127 Names this author has identified in the Holy Quran. However, there is no claim by this author that this is an exhaustive list. Other researchers are encouraged to continue the task of finding more of God's Names in the Holy Quran and their meanings.

In this list, each Name was documented by providing some of the verse numbers it was mentioned in. Then, an explanation of the Name meaning was given on the bases of its meaning in the verse context. This was followed by explanations provided by the three renowned interpreters, particularly Al-Qurtubi, and his book, Al-Asna, in the Explanation of the Good Names of Allah and His Attributes (Arabic).

It is noteworthy that one of the applications of knowledge about the Good Names of Allah has been naming Muslim boys. The word ('abd) is used as a prefix with one of Gods Names. It means "worshipper," as explained in Chapter 7. "Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves? Thus, "Abdullah" means "Worshipper of Allah," and "Abdul Ra'hman" means "Worshipper of The Beneficent" and so on. [30]

1. Allah: Allah (The God)    

"Allah" is the name which God has chosen for Himself, as stated in Verse 9 of Surat Al-Naml (Chapter 27), and Verse 14 of Surat Taha (Chapter 20), and Verse 30 of Surat Al-Qassas (Chapter 28) of the Holy Quran (See the first section above for an extended explanation).

 

The word "Allah" means "The God," or "Al-Ilah" in Arabic. In addressing God, a Muslim may say in Arabic "Ilahi" (my God). However, Muslims usually refer to God with the definite article, Al, contracted with the noun it defines, to become Allah, thus addressing Him with "Ya Allah," which means "O Allah."

 

This Good Name of God was mentioned in the Holy Quran 2,687 times as Allah, the first of which was in 1: 1, and 5 times as the addressed form Allahumma. as in 3: 26. [31] .

ۡ ٱ ٱٰۡ ٱ ( 1: 1).

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Fatiha, 1: 1).

 

( 3: 26).

 

Say, "O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty (Al-Imran, 3: 26).

 

The name of God (Allah) was also used by messengers of God who preceded Muhammed, peace and blessings of God be upon all of them.  

As mentioned earlier, Al-Qurtubi opined that the Greatest Name of Allah could be Al-Hayyu. However, he also argued that it could be Allah. He said that Allah has kept this Name exclusively to Himself and nobody else has been named as such. In addition, all of His other Names are adjectives (attributes). Therefore, he concluded that the Name Allah maybe His Greatest Name. This was also the opinion of some Sufi shaikhs, Judge Abu Bakr Bin Al-Arabi, and Ibn Al-Hassar, as he referenced them. Nonetheless, Ibn Katheer opined that it maybe Al-Qayyoom, and Allah knows better.

2. Ilah: God      ٰ

"Ilah" means "God."

Al-Ilah (The God) is the Creator (Al-Muminoon, 23: 91), the Lord (Al-Saffat, 37: 4-5), the One Who can harm and benefit (Al-Shuara, 26: 72-73).

Whoever knows Him as God, he/she behaves accordingly, depending on Him, praising Him in good times and running to Him for support in difficult times. This means that he/she acknowledges that He is worthy of worship, and he/she does so, in obedience to His command in verse 21: 25.

ٰ ( 21: 25).

And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no God (Ilah) except Me. So, worship Me" (Al-Anbiya, 21: 25).

According to Al-Qurtubi, when people recognize Him as their God, they depend on Him, and turn to Him when they are afraid or in need.

As a general term, the word Ilah (God) is mentioned 97 times, in the singular neutral form, in the Holy Quran. In 17 times, it is mentioned neutrally or as a reference to a false god. [32 ]

***

In 80 times, it is mentioned as a direct description of Allah or in relation to Him, as in verse 43: 84:

  ٰ ٰ ۚ ( 43: 84).

And it is Allah who is God (Ilah) in the heaven, and on the Earth (He is) God (Ilah). And He is the Wise, the Knowing (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 84).

It is also mentioned 11 times as Ilahukum (your God, for plural addressees), once as Ilahuna (our God), and once as Ilahaka (your God, for a singular addressee), as in verses 2: 133, 2: 163, and 29: 46, as follows:

ٰ ٰ ٰ ( 2: 133).

ٰ ٰ ۖ ٰ ٰ ( 2: 163).

ٰ ٰ ( 29: 46). 

(Children of Yacoop) said, "We will worship your God (Ilahaka) and the God (Ilah) of your fathers, Ibrahim (Abraham), and Ismail (Ishmael), and Isshaq (Isaac) - One God (Ilah). And we are Muslims (in submission) to Him" (Al-Baqara, 2: 133).

And your God (Ilahukum) is One God (Ilah). There is no (other) God (Ilah) except Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Baqara, 2: 163).

And our God (Ilahuna) and your God (Ilahukum) is One; and we are Muslims (in submission) to Him (Al-Ankaboot, 29: 46).


3. Ilah Al-Nas (pronounced as illah annas): God of the People      ٰ

"Ilah Al-Nas" means "God of the People."

This Good Name of God was also mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 114: 3.
 
4. La Ilaha Illa Huwa: No (Other) God But He     ٰ

"La Ilaha Illa Huwa" means "No (Other) God But He," The Only true God in the Universe.
 
This Good Name of God was mentioned seven times in the Holy Quran in 2: 255; 3: 2; 3: 18; 6: 102; 6: 106; 7: 158 and 9: 129.

5. Al-Ra'hman (pronounced ar-ra'hman ): The Beneficent    ٰ

 

"Al-Ra'hman" is pronounced as "ar-ra'hman," due to the contraction of the definite article "Al" with the noun, deleting the letter (l) and replacing it with the first letter of the defined noun, ( r ).

 

The renowned Islamic scholars, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Katheer, related an explanation of this characteristic of God from Abu Ali Al-Farisi and Al-'Arzami, may Allah be pleased with them, who said that Al-Ra'hman (The the Beneficent) is a reference to God's mercy to all of His creations, as expressed in providing them with what they need and enabling them to enjoy His provisions.

 

Some translators translated "Al-Rahman" as "The Compassionate." This author has found that "The Beneficent" is a more accurate translation on the basis of the above-mentioned interpretation from the cited Islamic scholars.

 

This Good Name of God was mentioned 160 times in  the Holy Quran, as in 1: 3 and 55: 1.

 

6. Al-Ra'heem (pronounced as ar-ra'heem): The Merciful    

 

"Al-Raheem is  pronounced as , ar-ra'heem, as the definite article "Al" is contracted with the noun, deleting the letter ( l ) and replacing it with the first letter of the defined noun, ( r ).

The renowned Islamic scholars, Al-Qurtubi and Ibn Katheer, explained the attribute of "Al-Ra'heem" as God's extra mercy to the believers. Thus, while "Al-Ra'heem" conveys the meaning of mercy and beneficence in this life, "Al-Ra'heem" coveys the meaning of mercy in the hereafter, as a reward to the believers.

 

This author agrees with most translators of the Holy Quran on the translation of "Al-Ra'heem" as "The Merciful."

This Good Name of God was mentioned 146 times in  the Holy Quran, with the definite article, as in 1: 4.

 

7. Ar'hamu Al-Ra'himeen (pronounced as ar'hamur ra'himeen): The Most Merciful Among the Merciful    

 

This Good Name of God was mentioned four times in  the Holy Quran, in 7: 151; 12: 64; 12: 92; and 21: 83. 

8. Al-Malik: The King    

"Al-Malik" means "The King." It conveys the meaning of absolute ruler over His kingdom. It also coveys the meaning of ownership of His Kingdom, which includes the Heavens, the Earth, what's in between them, the Chair, and the Throne. He is the King of this life and the King of the Hereafter.

This Good Name of God was mentioned four times in  the Holy Quran, in 20: 114; 23: 116; 59: 23; 62: 1.
 
9.
Al-Maalik: The Eternal Owner     

This Good Name of God means that He is the Eternal Owner of everything. It is associated in the Holy Quran with more qualifiers, such as Al-Mulk and Yawm Al-Deen.
 
10.
Maalik Al-Mulk: The Owner of the Dominion    
 
This Good Name of Allah is mentioned in the Holy Quran three times, in 3: 26; 6: 73; and 17: 111. It means that He is "The Owner of the Dominion," Who gives it to whoever He wills.
 
11.
Maalik Yawm Al-Deen" (pronounced as maaliku yawmud deen): The Owner of the Day of Judgment    
 
This Good Name of Allah is mentioned in the Holy Quran twice, in 1: 4 and 22: 56. It means that He is "The Owner of the Day of Judgment," Who will judge His creations on that Day. 

12. Al-Quddoos: The Holy    

"Al-Qudoos" means the Pure in cleanliness and perfection. The Senior Angel, Jibril, peace to him, is described in the Holy Quran as "Arrouh Al-Qudus," the Holy Spirit, in reference to his purity and perfection in conveying the messages of God to His human Messengers. Thus, "Al-Qudoos" is a reference to God's purity and perfection, or to His Holiness.

This Good Name of God was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in 59: 23 and 62: 1. 

13. Al-Salam (pronounced as as-salam): The Peace    

"Al-Salam" means "The Peace." Allah, praise to Him, is Peace and the source of peace to His creations. His message to humanity, conveyed through His Messengers, peace be upon them, is the Message of Peace or "Islam." The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, ordered Muslims to spread peace by greeting people saying "As-Salamu Alaikum," which can be translated as "Peace be upon you."

This Good Name of God was mentioned seven times in  the Holy Quran, as in 4: 94. 

14. Al-Mu.min: The Believer in His Godhood    

 

"Al-Mu.min" (pronounced with a glottal stop between the vowel u and the consonant m) means "The Believer." Allah, praise to Him, is "The Believer" in His Godhood. He stated that clearly in the Holy Quran, saying that He proclaimed that there is no other god but Him (3: 18).

 

"Al-Mu.min" as a Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Hashr (59: 23).

 

15. Al-Muhaymin: The Dominant    

"Al-Muhaymin" means "The Dominant" over His creations, including humans, who are helpless before His Power. This attribute refers to God's ability to watch His creations and to record their secret and public behaviors. It also refers to his ability to run His Dominium or Universe in the perfect system He created.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 59: 23.

16. Al-'Azeez: The Rare in His Might and Power    

"Al-'Azeez" (the apostrophe before the letter "A" refers to the fifteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, ('ayn), produced glottally) means "The Rare in His Might and Power." Nobody and nothing is equal to Him. His creations need Him but He needs nobody.

This Good Name of God was mentioned 64 times in the Holy Quran, as in 2: 129. 

17. Al-Jabbar: The Compeller    

"Al-Jabbar" means "The Compeller" who compels or forces His creations to follow His rules. Believers should strive to have some of this attribute of God by forcing their "selves" to follow God's rules, obeying His commands and avoiding His prohibitions.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 59: 23. 

18. Al-Mutakabbir: The Majestically Proud    

"Al-Mutakabbir" means "The Majestically Proud," Who is Greater and Higher than His creations due to the perfection of His attributes and His existence. Believers, though, are discouraged to feel or exercise this attribute against other humans.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 59: 23. 

19. Al-Khaliq: The Creator      

"Al-Khaliq" means "The Creator," The One who created the heavens, the Earth, and life on them. He brings everything from non-existence to existence. The underlined letters "kh" refer to the seventh letter of the Arabic alphabet. The letter "q" is the closest translation of the twentieth letter of the Arabic alphabet.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran with the definite article and seven times without it, in 59: 24.

20.  A'hsan Al-Khaliqeen (pronounced as A'hsanul Khaliqeen): The Best of Creators    

This Good Name of Allah is a derivative of the same root verb /khalaqa/, the same for the Good Name of God "Al-Khaliq." It was mentioned in two verses of the Holy Quran, 23: 14 and 37: 125.

In these two verses, Allah is describing Himself as "A'hsanul Khaliqeen," which may be translated as "The Best of Creators." 

21. Al-Bari': The Maker, The Curer    

 

Al-Bari' (pronounced with a glottal stop at the end) means "The Maker who makes one distinct thing from another." Allah, praise to Him, created every living thing from water and He created humans from clay.

 

This Good Name of God, "Al-Bari'," or "The Maker" is mentioned in Surat Al-'Hashr (59: 24). It is also mentioned once in Surat Al-Baqara (2: 54).

 

Another meaning of Al-Bari' is the Curer. Believers call on Allah with this name when they ask Him to cure them. Al-Bari', The root verb of this attribute of God is mentioned in Surat Al-'Imran (3: 49) and Surat Al-Maeda (5: 110).

 

22. Al-Musawwir: The Fashioner, The Shaper    

"Al-Musawwir" means "The Fashioner," or "The Shaper" Who fashions or shapes His creatures in proportions or forms suitable to their functions.

"Al-Musawwir," as a Good Name of God, was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-'Hashr (59 :24).

23. Al-Ghaffar: The Constant Forgiver    

 

"Al-Ghaffar" means "The Forgiver," Who forgives the sins of His worshippers. The underlined English letters "gh" represent the twelfth letter of the Arabic alphabet, which is pronounced the same way Parisians in France pronounce the letter - r -).

 

There are two other Good Names of God deriving from the same Arabic root verb / ghafara /, to forgive. These are "Al-Ghafoor" and "Al-Ghafir," both of which convey the same meaning.

 

"Al-Ghaffar," as a Good Name of God, was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Nooh (71: 10). This is the most expressive word for the characteristic of forgiveness, or Al-Ghufran, in Arabic, followed by Al-Ghafoor, then Al-Ghafir.

 

24. Al-Ghafour: The Inherently Forgiver    

  

"Al-Ghafour" means "The Inherently Forgiver" of people's sins, because He is inherently Merciful.

 

This Good Name of God was mentioned 91 times in the Holy Quran, 77 times of these it was linked with the Other Good Name of Allah, the Merciful, as in Verse 2: 173.

 

25. Al-Ghafir: The Forgiver      

"Al-Ghafir" means "The Forgiver." As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Ghafir (40: 3).
 
26. Ahlul Maghfirah: The Source of Forgiveness    

"Ahlul Maghfirah" means "The Source of Forgiveness." As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned once in Verse 56 of Surat Al-Muddathir (Chpater 74) of the Holy Quran 
 
27. Wasi'ul Maghfirah: "The Vast in Forgiveness      

"Wasi'u Al-Maghfirah" means "The Vast in Forgiveness." As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned once in Verse 32 of Surat Al-Najm (Chpater 53) of the Holy Quran.

In this verse, God's Attribute of Vastness is combined with His Attribute of Forgiveness.

28. Khayr Al-Ghafireen (pronounced as khayrul  ghafireen): The Best of Forgivers    

 

"Khayr Al-Ghafireen: means "The Best of Forgivers." As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned in Verse 155 of Surat Al-A'araf (Chapter 7) of the Holy Quran.

29. Al-Qahhar: The Constant Subduer    

"Al-Qahhar" means "The Ultimate Subduer," "The Ultimate Dominant," The One who subdues and dominates His creations with His power and ability, whether they like it or not.

"Al-Qahaar" as a Good Name of God, was mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, associated with His attribute of Oneness, as in Surat Yousuf (12: 39). 

30. Al-Qahir: The Subduer    

 

"Al-Qahir" means "The Ultimate Subduer." As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Ana'am (6: 18; 6: 61). It is a derivative of the same root verb /qahara/, to subdue, dominate, or prevail over, as for God's Good Name of "Al-Qahaar."

 

31. Al-Wahhaab: The Bestower    

 

"Al-Wahhaab" means "The Bestower," or "The Grantor," The One who is Generous in giving. This Good Name of God was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran (3: 8; 38: 9; 38:35).

32. Al-Razzaq (pronounced as ar-razzaq): The Sustainer, The Provider    

 

"Al-Razzaq" means "The Sustainer," or "The Provider," Who sustains His creations and provides for them even without them asking Him for that. This Good Name God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran (51: 58).

 

33. Khayr Al-Raziqeen (pronounced as khairur raziqeen): The Best of Sustainers, or The Best of Providers    

 

This Good Name of God, was mentioned five times in the Holy Quran (5:114; 22: 58; 23: 72; 34: 39; 62 11). It is a derivative of the same root verb /razaqa/, to sustain, or provide, as for God's Good Name of "Al-Razzaq."

 

34. Al-Fatta'h: The Opener, The Judge    

 

"Al-Fattah" means "The Judge" Who rules between people with justice in the Day of Judgment, opening a clear path or distinction between right and wrong. This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran (34: 26). 

"Al-Fatta'h" also has the general meaning related to the root verb /fata'ha/, to open. Thus, Allah, praise Him is "The Opener" of doors and gates for sustenance, power, and knowledge for His faithful worshippers. He is also The Opener of doors of mercy for those who repent and doors of knowing the unseen for his close servants, Awliya', as expressed in 6: 59 and 35: 2.

35. Khair Al-Fati'heen (pronounced as khairul fatiheen): The Best of Judges, The Best of Openers    

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran (7: 89). It is a derivative of the same root verb /fata'ha/, to open, as for God's Good Name of  'Al-Fatta'h."

36. Al-'Aleem: The Knowledgeable, The Knower     

"Al-'Aleem" means "The Knowledgeable," The One Who knows what humans know and see and what they don't see or know. He knows the Universe of the Seven Heavens that He Created while humans barely know about their planet and much less about their solar system.

This Good Name of God, "Al-'Aleem" or without the definite article " 'Aleem," was mentioned 162 times in the Holy Quran, as in 2:32 and 2: 29. 

There are two more Good Names of God, which are derivatives of the same root verb / 'alima/, which were also mentioned in the Holy Quran. These are " 'Alim" and " 'Allam."

37. 'Alimu Al-Ghaybi (pronounced as 'alimul ghaybi): The Knower of the Unseen and Unknown to Humans    

 

This Good Name of God, which is related to the Good Name of God "Al'Aleem," was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, in 34: 3; 35: 38; and 72: 26.  

 

38. 'Alimu Al-Ghaybi wa Al-Shahada (pronounced as 'alimul ghaybi wash shahada)

 

The Knower of the Seen, Unseen, Known, and Unknown to Humans    

This Good Name of God, which is also related to the Good Name number 36 "Al'Aleem," was mentioned ten times in the Holy Quran, as in 6: 73.  
 
39. 'Allam Al-Ghiyoob (pronounced as 'allamul ghiyoob): Knower of the Unseens and Uknowns         

This Good Name of God, which is related to God's Good Name of "Al'Aleem," was mentioned four times in the Holy Quran, in 5: 109; 5: 116; 9: 78; and 34: 48.

40. Al-Samee'u (pronounced as as-samee'u): The Hearer      

"Al-Samee'u," means The All-Hearing, The Hearer, The One who Hears all things, everywhere in His Dominion, whether it was whispering or a loud voice. Al-Tabari added that He is The Hearer of calls from the believers asking Him for help as well as The Hearer of non-believers who reject the revealed truth and make fun of believers.

This Good Name of God was mentioned forty-six times in the Holy Quran, nineteen times of them with the definite article and twenty-seven times without it. In sixteen of the verses, this attribute was followed by God's Good Name number 27 "Al-'Aleem," as 2: 127 and 2: 137. In three verses, it was followed by His Attribute number 32 "Al-Baseer," in 17: 1; 40: 20; and 42: 11.

41. Al-Baseer: The Seer, The All-Seeing        

"Al-Baseer" means "The All-Seeing," The One who sees all things, everywhere in His Dominion, whether seen by His creations or unseen by them. Al-Tabari added that He is The Seer, who sees the believers who will be rewarded for their good deeds. He also sees the non-believers who will be punished for their wrong doing.

This Good Name of God was mentioned forty-six times in the Holy Quran, three of them with the definite article, in 17: 1; 40: 20; and 42: 11, following His Attribute number 31 "Al-Samee'u.

42. Al-'Hakeem: The Wise Judge, The Perfect    

"Al-'Hakeem" means "The Wise," The One who is Perfect in what He does or says due to His perfect knowledge, which prevents any distortion or imperfection, as explained by Al-Qurtubi.

This Good Name of God, "Al-'Hakeem" was mentioned thirty-nine times in the Holy Quran with the definite article (Al), as in 2: 32 and 2: 129,  and seventy-five times without it, as in 2: 209 and 2: 220.

43. Khairu Al-'Hakimeen (pronounced as khairul 'hakimeen: The Best of Judges      

"Khairu Al-'Hakimeen" means the "The Best of Judges," who rules over His creations by His judgment in the hereafter, rewarding the good doers by an everlasting life in Paradise and punishing the wrong doers in the Hellfire. In making His judgment, He does not neglect anything no matter how small it is. He also may choose to interfere in the life of people, helping the true believers when they are in need of His assistance against the tyrants of Earth.

This Good Name of God was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, in 7: 87; 10: 109; and 12: 80.

There are also several verses in the Holy Quran which point to this characteristic of God, such as 40: 48, in which the reference to this Attribute comes as a verb in the past tense, meaning "ruled" or "gave judgment." In another verse (2: 113) the reference comes as a verb in the present tense, meaning "rules" or "gives judgment." In many more verses, God is .e One to Whom Belongs the Judgment," as in 6: 62.

44. A'hkamu Al-'Hakimeen (pronounced as a'hkamul 'hakimeen): The Wisest of Judges    

"A'hkamu Al-'Hakimeen" means "The Wisest of Judges," who rules over His creations by His judgment in the hereafter, rewarding the good doers by an everlasting life in Paradise and punishing the wrong doers in the Hellfire. In making His judgment, He does not neglect anything no matter how small it is. He also may choose to interfere in the life of people, helping the true believers when they are in need of His assistance against the tyrants of Earth.

This Good Name of God shares the same root verb / 'hakama /, to judge, with God's Good Name of "Khairu Al-'Hakimeen." It was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in 11: 45 and 95: 8.

45. Al-Lateef: The Subtle, The Gentle, The Gracious to His creations    

"Al-Lateef" means "The Gentle, The Gracious to His creations, particularly His worshippers among them. He is Subtle as He sees and comprehends His creations but they cannot see or comprehend Him. Despite His Might, He is still Gracious to His creations, caring for them, and providing them what they need to survive.

This Good Name of God was mentioned seven times in the Holy Quran, twice with the definite article (Al) in 6: 103 and 67: 14 as well as five times without the definite article, as in 12: 100 and 31:16.

46. Al-Khabeer: The Expert, The Informed, The Knowledgeable     

"Al-Khabeer" means "The Expert," The One who knows the truth of things better than anybody else because He is the Creator of everybody else.

This Good Name of God was mentioned forty-five times in the Holy Quran, six of them with the definite article (Al) and the rest without it, as in 6: 18.

47. Al-'Haleem: The Forbearer     

"Al-'Haleem" means "The Forbearer, The One who is capable of punishing the offenders but He delays their punishment, willing to forgive them if they repent and ask for forgiveness.

This Good Name of God was mentioned ten times in the Holy Quran without the definite article, as in 2: 225 and 2: 235.

48. Al-'Atdheem: The Great    

"Al-'Atdheem" means "The Great," and "The Mighty," in His Attributes that none of His creations has. He is Great as the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, which are just small pieces of matter compared to His Chair alone, as explained above.

This Good Name of God was mentioned eight times in the Holy Quran with the definite article (Al). These are 2: 255; 42: 4; 9: 129; 27: 26; 56: 74; 56: 96; 69: 33; and 69: 52.

49. Al-Shakoor (pronounced as ash-shakoor):The Inherently Thankful     

"Al-Shakoor" means "The Thankful," and "The Grateful," of His faithful worshippers. He appreciates their obedience and good doing by rewarding them with happiness in this llife and in the Hereafter. He is so happy for the believers who choose to worship Him and do good by choice that He is Thankful to them, expressing His thanks by promising them an everlasting and happy life in Paradise.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned four times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article, in 35: 30; 35: 34; 42: 23 and 64: 17.

50. Al-Shakir (pronounced as ash-shakir): The Thankful    

"Al-Shakir," means the "Thankful" and "The Grateful" of His faithful worshippers. He appreciates their obedience and good doing by rewarding them with happiness in this llife and in the Hereafter. He is so happy for the believers who choose to worship Him and do good by choice that He is Thankful to them, expressing His thanks by promising them an everlasting and happy life in Paradise.
 
This Good Name of God was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, without the definite article, in 2: 158 and 4: 147. It shares the same root verb / shakara / with God's Attribute, Al-Shakoor.

51. Al-'Aliy: The Most High     

"Al-'Aliy" means "The Most High," in rank and existence. As the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, He exists outside of His creations, higher than them and everything they contain. Al-Tabari supported this interpretation but added that He is higher in rank than His creations.

This Good Name of God was mentioned five times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 2: 255; 22: 62: 34: 23; 40: 12 and 42: 4.

52. Al-Kabeer: The Inherently Great    

"Al-Kabeer" means "The Great," The One Who is Great by Himself, independent from His creations.

This Good Name of God was mentioned five times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 13: 9; 22: 62: 31: 30; 34: 23 and 40: 12.

53. Al-'Hafitdh: The Preserver, The Guardian    

"Al-'Hafitdh" means "The Preserver," or "The Guardian," The One Who preserves or guards whatever and whoever He wants away from malfunctioning or from being harmed.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran in the singular form, without the definite article (Al), in 12: 64. It was also mentioned twice in the plural form, without the definite article (Al), in 15: 9 and 21: 82.

54. Al-'Hafeetdh: The Keen Preserver, The Guardian    

"Al-'Hafeetdh," means "The Keen Preserver," The One Who protects His creations, or preserves them, away from harm.

This Good Name of Allah is another derivative of the same root verb of "Al-'Hafitdh." It was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 11: 57; 34: 21 and 42: 6.

55. Al-Muqeet: The Source of Sustenance      
 
"Al-Muqeet" means "The Source of Sustenance" for His creations.
 
This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 4: 85.
 
56.
Al-'Haseeb: The Reckoner or The Calculator     
 
"Al-'Haseeb" means "The Reckoner" or "The Calculator," The One Who calculates, lists down, and records actions and words of people, in order to be judged by them in the Day of Reckoning.
 
This Good Name of Allah was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 4: 6; 4: 86; and 33: 39.
 
57.
Asra'u Al-'Hasibeen (pronounced as asra'ul 'hasibeen): The Fastest of Calculators     
 
"Asra'u Al-'Hasibeen" means "The Fastest of Calculators," or "The Fastest of Reckoners."
 
This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 6: 62.
 
58.
Saree'u Al-'Hisab (pronounced as saree'ul 'hisab): The Fast in Calculation or Reckoning    
 
"Saree'u Al-'Hisab" means "The Fast in Calculation or Reckoning," in the Day of Reckoning.
 
 This Good Name of Allah was mentioned was mentioned eight times in the Holy Quran, in 2: 202; 3: 19; 3: 199; 5: 4; 13: 41; 14: 51; 24: 39; and 40: 17. 
 
59.
Al-Kareem: The Generous     

"Al-Kareem" means "The Generous," The One who provides His creations with much more sustenance resources than they need.

This Good Name of God was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in 23: 116 and 82:6 .
 
60.
Al-Raqeeb (pronounced as ar-raqeeb): The Watchful     

"Al-Raqeeb" means "The Watchful," The One Who watches everything, everywhere, at all times.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 5: 117 .
 
61.
Al-Qareeb: The Nearby   
 
 
"Al-Qareeb" means "The Nearby," The One Who is close at hand to the believers, who call on Him.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 11: 61 .
 
62.
Al-Mujeeb: The Responder   
 

"Al-Mujeeb" means "The Responder," The One Who responds to the calls of those who ask Him in need.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al) in 11: 61 
 
63.
Ni'ama Al-Mujeeboon (pronounced as ni'amal mujeeboon): The Best of Responders     

"Ni'ama Al-Mujeeboon" means "The Best of Responders." It shares the same root verb / ajaba / or / jawaba /, to respond, with the Good Name of Allah number 47 (Al-Mujeeb).

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 37: 75.

64. Al-Wasi'u: The Vast     

"Al-Wasi'u" means "The Vast," in everything, particularly in His knowledge, forgiveness, and wisdom.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned nine times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al). In seven of them, this Attribute of God was followed by his Attribute number 27 as "Al-'Aleem," (The Knowledgeable), as in 2: 115; 2: 247; 2: 261; and 2: 268.

In one verse (53: 32), God's Attribute of Vastness is combined with His Attribute of Forgiveness (Number 17) to become "Wasi'u Al-Maghfirah," which means "The Vast in Forgiveness).

 In Verse 4: 130, this Good Name of God (Wasi'u) is followed by His Attribute of Wisdom, number 33, (Al-'Hakeem).
 
65.
Al-Wadood: The Loving     

"Al-Wadood" means "The Loving," The One who loves His worshippers and is loved by them. Because of this love, He is Merciful to them.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 85: 14. In the same Verse, He describes Himself as "Al-Ghafoor, Al-Wadood," (The Forgiver, The Loving).
 
66.
Al-Majeed: The Glorious      

"Al-Majeed" means "The Glorious," The One Who is glorified for His generosity, power, compassion, and kindness.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned in the Holy Quran, once without the definite article (Al), in 11: 73 and another with the definite article, in 85: 15.

67. Al-Shaheed (pronounced as ash-shaheed): The Witness     

"Al-Shaheed" means "The Witness," The One Who can see and hear everything so that He will be "The Witness" on our deeds and words in the Day of Judgment.

This Good Name of God was mentioned twenty times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in verses 3: 98, 4: 33, 4: 79, 4: 166, 5: 117, 6:19, 10: 29, 10: 46, 13: 43, 17: 96, 22: 17, 29: 52, 33: 55, 34: 47, 41: 53, 46: 8, 48: 28, 58: 6, 85: 9, and 100: 7.
 
68.
Al-'Haq: The Truth     

"Al-'Haq" means "The Truth," The One Who is true in His existence, word, and promise. He is the only lasting truth, while all other truths may be temporary and changing.

This Good Name of God was mentioned ten times in the Holy Quran, in 6: 62; 10: 30; 10: 32; 18: 44; 20 114; 22: 6; 22: 62; 23: 116; 24: 25 and 31: 30.

The word "Al-'Haq" was mentioned 191 times in the Holy Quran, meaning the truth but not as an attribute of God. However, in the above-mentioned ten verses, it was mentioned as His Attribute, praise to Him.

69. Al-Wakeel: The Patron    

"Al-Wakeel" means "The Patron," The One Who defends believers whenever He is called on, particularly when they are exposed to danger or injustice.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 3: 173, and 12 times without it, as in 4: 81; 4: 132; 4: 171; and 73: 9.

70. Al-Qawiy: The Powerful    

"Al-Qawiy" means "The Powerful," The One Who is more powerful than His creations. He owns the sources of power, and He uses them as He wills.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 11: 66 and 42: 19, and seven times without it in 8: 52; 22: 40; 22: 74; 33: 25; 40: 22; 57: 25; and 58: 21.
 
71.
Al-Mateen: The Strong   
 

"Al-Mateen" means "The Strong," The One Who is strong in His Power. Al-Qurtubi added that this attribute refers to physical strength. Other scholars explained it as having the strongest forms of power.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 51: 58.
 
72.
Al-Mawla: The Guardian    

"Al-Mawla" means "The Guardian," The One Who guards the believers and protects them.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 47: 11.

73. Al-Waliy: The Supporter     

"Al-Waliy" means "The Supporter," The One Who supports believers and defends them.

This Good Name of God was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al) in 42:9 and 42: 28. It was also mentioned once as "Wal," without the definite article at the beginning or the vowel at the end, in 13: 11. But it was mentioned many  times as "Waliy," without the definite article at the beginning, as in 2: 107; 2: 120; 2: 257; 3: 68; 42: 9; 42: 28; 45: 19; 4: 45; 3: 122; 7; 196; and 12: 101.

74. Al-'Hameed: The Praised    

"Al-'Hameed" means "The Praised" or "The Praiseworthy," The One Who is praised by believers for His blessings, provision, care, and love for His creations.

This Good Name of God was mentioned ten times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 14: 1; 22: 24; 22: 64; 31: 26; 34: 6; 35: 15; 42: 28; 57: 24; 60: 5; and 85: 8. It was also mentioned seven times without it, in 2: 267; 4: 131; 11: 73; 14: 8; 31: 12; 41: 42; and 64: 6.

75. Al-Mu'hyi: Giver of Life to the Dead      

"Al-Mu'hyi" means "The Giver of Life to the Dead," in the Day of Judgment.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 30: 50 and 41: 39.
 
76.
Al-'Hayyu: The Eternally Living    
 
"Al-'Hayyu" means "The Eternally Living," The One Who is Everlasting and Eternal while all of His creations ultimately die.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), together with the Good Name of God, "Al-Qayyoom," in 2: 255; 3: 2; and 20: 111.
 
77.
Al-Qayyoom: The Sustainer of the Universe     

"Al-Qayyoom" means "The Sustainer," The One Who is Self-Sufficient in resources and capabilities, to administer the system of the Universe He has created and sustain His creations in it.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), together with the Good Names of God, "Al-'Hayyu," in 2: 255; 3: 2; and 20: 111.
 
78.
Al-Wa'hid: The One   
 

"Al-Wa'hid" means "The One," The One God Who Has no partners. He is not dual, or part of a trinity or plurality of Gods.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 12: 39; 13: 16; 14: 48; 38: 65: 39: 4; and 40: 16. It was also mentioned sixteen times without it, as in 2: 133; 2: 163: 4: 17; 5: 73: 6: 19; and 9: 31.

This Good Name of God is related to His two other Good Names, "Al-A'had" and "Al-Samad."
 
79.
Al-A'had: The Uniquely One    

"Al-A'had" means "The Uniquely One," in His nature. He did not beget (give birth) and He was not begotten (given birth to); And there has never been anyone equal to Him, as He states in Surat Al-Ikhlas, 112: 1-4.

This means that He has no wife, sons, daughters, father, or mother. Nobody has ever been equal to Him in appearance or capabilities. "Al-A'had" also means "The One" Who had nobody with Him in the beginning and nobody will be with Him in the end.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 112: 1.
 
80.
Al-Samad (pronounced as as-samad): The Ultimate Provider   
 ٱ

"Al-Samad" means "The Ultimate Provider." He is the Ultimate Destination for judgment and for help, the source of light, help, and provision.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 112: 1.
 
81.
Al-Qadir: The Able, The Capable    

"Al-Qadir" means "The Able," The One Who is Capable of anything and everything, including rewarding obedient believers and punishing disobedient nonbelievers.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned eleven times in the Holy Quran, once with the definite article (Al), in 6: 65, five times in the plural form, without the definite article, "Qadiroon" or "Qadireen," in 23: 18; 23: 95; 68: 25; 70: 40; 75: 4; and five times in the singular form, "Qadir," without the definite article, in 6: 37; 17; 99; 36; 81: 46; 33; 75: 40; and 86: 8.
 
82.
Al-Muqtadir: The Capable     

"Al-Muqtadir" means "The Capable," The One Who is Capable of anything and everything, including rewarding obedient believers and punishing disobedient nonbelievers. It shares the same root verb /qadara / of the Good Name of God, "Al-Qadir."

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned four times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), one of them in the plural form (43: 42) and three in the singular form, in 18: 45; 43: 42; 54: 42; and 54: 55.
 
83.
Al-Qadeer: The Inherently Capable    

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned forty-six times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in most of them it was associated with the ability of God to do everything, as in 2: 20; 2: 106; 2: 109; 2: 148; 2: 259; and 2: 284.

84. Ni'ama Al-Qadiroon (pronounced as ni'mal qadiroon): The Best of the Capable     

"Ni'ma Al-Qadiroon" means "The Best of Capables." It shares the same root verb / qadira /, to be able or capable, with the Good Name of Allah number 65 (Al-Qadir). It also means that Allah, praise to Him, is the Best of Determiner, as He determines what He wills in precise measurement, as explained in Chapter III.10, "God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha." 

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 77: 23.
 
85.
Al-Awwal: The First    

"Al-Awwal" means "The First," The One Who has been in existence from the beginning.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 57: 3.
 
86. Al-Akhir: The Last   
 

"Al-Akhir" means "The Last," The One Who stays last in existence after all His creations perish.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 57: 3.
 
87.
Al-Dhahir: The Manifest    

"Al-Dhahir" means "The Manifest," The One Who is obvious to the minds of His creations through His signs and capabilities.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 57: 3.
 
88.
Al-Batin: The Latent    

"Al-Batin" means "The Latent," The One Who is capable of becoming present though not obvious to the minds of His creations.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 57: 3.

89. Al-Muta'al: The Higher (than His creations)     
 
"Al-Muta'al" is another Good Name of God having the same characteristic of Highness as "Al-'Aliy." It means that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, is "Higher" in rank and existence than all of His creations. As the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, He exists outside of His creations, higher than them and everything they contain.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 13: 9.
 
90.
Al-Barr: The Source of Goodness and Kindness    

"Al-Barr" means "The Source of All Goodness and Kindness," The One Who is kind to His creatures by providing them with His sustenance, provision, care, and mercy. Al-Tabari and Al-Qurtubi explained this Attribute of God as His Kindness to the believers. Ibn Katheer added that it is a reference to forgiving the believers who call on Him for salvation.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), in 52: 28.
 
91.
Al-Tawwab (pronounced as at-tawwab): The Acceptor of Repentance     

"Al-Tawwab" means "The Acceptor of Repentance," The One Who accepts repentance of His worshippers who return to Him.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), associated with His Attribute of Mercy, in 2: 37; 2: 54; 2: 128; 2: 160; 9: 104; and 9: 118. It was also mentioned five times without it, in 4: 16; 4: 64; 24: 10; 49: 12; and 110: 3.
 
92.
Al-Muntaqim: The Avenger     

The Avenger, The One Who exacts punishment on the oppressors for their transgression against the believers, and their disobedience to Him.

This Good Name of God was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, in the honorific plural form, without the definite article (Al), in 32: 22; 43: 41; 44 16.
 
93.
Al-'Afuw: The Pardoner    

"Al-'Afuw" means "The Pardoner," "The Forgiver," The One Who removes or deletes the sins of repentant worshippers from their records. So, they won't be punished for them in the Day of Judgment.

This Good Name of God was mentioned five times in the Holy Quran, in the honorific plural form, without the definite article (Al), in 4: 43; 4: 99; 4: 149; 22: 60; and 58: 2.
 
94.
Al-Ra'ouf (pronounced as ar-ra'ouf): The Extremely Merciful    

"Al-Ra'ouf" means "The Extremely Merciful" to all of His creations. He is more merciful to people than a mother to her infant.

This Good Name of God was mentioned eleven times in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 2: 207; 3: 30; 9: 117; 9: 128; 24: 20; 59: 10; 2: 143; 15: 7; 16: 47; 22: 65; and 57: 9.
 
95.
Al-Jaami'u: The Gatherer     

"Al-Jaami'u" means "The Gatherer," The One Who gathers people for reckoning in the Day of Judgment and Who gathers hypocrites and non-believers in the Hellfire.

This Good Name of God was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 3: 9 and 4: 140.
 
96.
Al-Ghaniy: The Rich     

"Al-Ghaniy" means "The Rich," "The Self-Sufficient," The One Who does not need His creations.

This Good Name of God was mentioned eight times in the Holy Quran, with the definite article (Al), as in 6: 133 and 10: 68. It was also mentioned eleven times without it, as in 2: 263; 2: 267; and 273.
 
97.  
Al-Noor (pronounced as an-noor): The Light    

"Al-Noor" means "The Light." Allah is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth and the Guidance for those who dwell in or on them. The Prophet, pbbuh, was asked if He saw God when he ascended to the Seventh Heaven. He answered: "I saw Light").

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 24: 35. It was also mentioned as the "Light" of God in 39: 69. However, the word "Noor" (Light) was used to describe the Holy Quran in seven verses, as in 4: 174; 5: 15; and 7: 157.
 
98.
Al-Hadi: The Guide    

"Al-Hadi" means "The Guide," The One Who guides the living beings to what is beneficial for them.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), in 25: 31.
 
99.
Al-Badee'u: The Creative    
 
"Al-Badee'u" means "The Creative," The One Who has created heaves and the Earth in a unique way, without parallels to His creations.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in 2: 117 and 6: 101.
 
100.
Al-Warith: The Inheritor     

"Al-Warith" means "The Inheritor," The One inherits His creations in Heavens and on Earth, as they are all going to perish.

This Good Name of God was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, in the honorific plural form, with the definite article (Al), in 15: 23; 23: 10 and 28: 58.

101. Khairu Al-Waritheen (pronounced as khairul waritheen): The Best of Inheritors    

"Khairu Al-Waritheen" means "The Best of Inheritors," The One inherits His creations in Heavens and on Earth, as they are all going to perish.

This Good Name of God was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in the honorific plural form, with the definite article (Al), in 21: 89.

102. Al-Fatir: The Originator    

 

"Al-Fatir" means "The Originator," Who created the Heavens and the Earth, as well as life, in an original way.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, in 6: 14; 12: 10; 14: 10; 35: 1; 39: 46; and 42: 11.

 

103: Al-Abqa: The Everlasting     ٰ

 

"Al-Abqa" means "The Everlasting," The One Who lasts while everybody and everything have an end as they have a beginning.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 20: 73.

 

104. Al-Khair: The Good    

 

"Al-Khair" means "The Good," The One Who is Good to His creations, caring, loving, providing, and guiding them.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 20: 73. 

105. Khayr Al-Nasireen (pronounced as khayrun nasireen): The Best of Supporters 

 

"Khayr Al-Nasireen" means the Best of Supporters for His righteous worshippers.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran in 3: 150. 

106. Ahlu Al-Taqwa (pronounced as ahlut taqwa): The Source of Piety and Righteousness       ٰ

"Ahlu Al-Taqwa" means "The Source of Piety and Righteousness."

As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned once in Verse 56 of Surat Al-Muddathir (Chpater 74) of the Holy Quran.

107. Shadeedul Mu'hal: The Utmost in Power and Capability    

"Shadeedul Mu'hal" means "The Utmost in Power and Capability."

As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned in Verse 13 of Surat Al-Ra'ad (Chapter 13) of the Holy Quran.

108. Shadeed Al-Adhab (pronounced as shadeedul adhab): The Severe in Punishment    

 

"Shadeed Al-Adhab" means "The Severe in Punishment ."

 

As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned in Verse 165 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2) of the Holy Quran.

 

109. Shadeed Al-'Iqab (pronounced as shadeedul 'iqab): The Severe in Penalty    

 

"Shadeed Al-'iqab" means "The Severe in Penalty ."

 

As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned in the Holy Quran 13 times, in 2: 196, 211; 5: 2, 98; 8: 13, 25, 48, 52; 13: 6; 40: 3, 22; 59: 4, 7.

 

110. Dhu Al-Fadhl (pronounced as dhul fadhl): The Possessor of Great Bounty    

 

Dhu Al-Fadhl means "The Possessor of Great Bounty" or the One with Great Bounty.

 

As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned in the Holy Quran 6 times with the definite article, in 2: 105; 3; 174; 8: 29; 57: 21, 29; and 62: 4.

 

It was also mentioned 5 times without the definite article, in 2: 243; 3: 152; 10: 60; 27: 73 and 40: 61.

 

111. Dhu Al-Ra'hma (pronounced as dhul ra'hma): The Source of Mercy      

"Dhu Al-Ra'hma" means "The One Who is the Source of Mercy."

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned in the Holy Quran 3 times, in 6: 133, 147 and 18: 58. 

112. Dhu Al-Maghfira (pronounced as dhul maghfira): Full of Forgiveness    

"Dhu Al-Maghfira" means "The One Who is Full of Forgiveness."

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned in the Holy Quran twice, in 13: 6 and 41:43. 

113. Dhu Al-Quwwah (pronounced as dhul quwwah): The One With Power, the Strong    

"Dhu Al-Quwah" means "The One With Power," or "The One to Whom the Power Belongs."

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 51: 58.

114. Dhu 'Iqab Aleem (pronounced as dhu 'iqabin aleem): The One with Severe Punishment    

 

"Dhu 'Iqab Aleem" means "The One Who Inflicts Severe Punishment." As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 41: 43.

 

115. Dhu Intiqam (pronounced as dhun tiqam): The One with of Severe Revenge    

 

"Dhu Intiqam" means "The One Who Inflicts Severe Revenge." As a Good Name of God, it was mentioned 4 times in the Holy Quran, in 3: 4, 11; 5: 95; and 14: 47.

116. Dhu Al-Ma'aarij: The One to Whom Belongs the Ascents    

 

"Dhul Ma'aarij" means "The One to Whom Belongs the Ascents." This is a reference to God as Highest, where angels and the Senior Angel, Jibril, ascend to Him through the various heavens, thus the "Ascents."

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 70: 3.

 

117. Dhu Al-'Arsh (pronounced as dhul-'arsh): The One to Whom Belongs the Throne     

 

"Dhu Al-'Arsh" means "The One to Whom Belongs the Throne," which is described in Verse of the Chair above. Creation and possession of the Throne is a symobol of His Ownership of His Kingdom.

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in 40: 15 and 85: 15.

 

118. Dhu Al-Jalal Wa Al-Ikram (pronounced as  Dhul-Jalali wal-Ikram): The One to Whom Belongs the Majesty and Honory      

"Dhul-Jalali wal-Ikram" means "The One to Whom Belongs the Majesty and Honor.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in 55: 27 and 55: 78.

119. Rafee'u Al-Darajat (pronounced as rafee'ud-darajat): The High in Ranks      

"Rafee'u Al-Darajat" means "The High in Ranks," The One Who is High in Attributes and physical location above His creations, including the Heavens and the Earth.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 40: 15.

120. Laysa Kamithlihi Shay.un: Nothing Is Like Him      

"Laysa Kamithlihi Shay.un" means "Nothing Is Like Him." This is in answering those who claim that humans look like God.

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in 42: 11.

121. Al-Rab: The Lord    

 

"Al-Rab" means "The Lord."

 

Verses 75-82 of Surat Al-Shuara (Chapter 26) of the Holy Quran explain the word Rab as the One Who guides, feeds, waters, heals, and resurrects people after death.  

 

This Good Name of God was mentioned so many times in the Holy Quran that its conjugated forms fill thirteen pages of the Arabic index of the Holy Quran, without the definite article (Al), as in 1: 2; 7: 54; 10: 3; 12: 100; 13: 2; 39: 75; and 40: 7.

 

122. Rab Al-'Arsh (pronounced as rabul 'arsh):The Lord of the Throne    

 

"Rab Al-'Arsh" means "The Lord of the Throne." The Throne was explained above in Verse of the Chair (Ayatul Kursi).

This Good Name of God was mentioned five times in the Holy Quran in 21: 22; 23: 86; 23: 116; 27: 26; 43: 82. 

123. Rab Al-Samawat Wal Ardh (pronounced as  rabus samawati wal ardh): The Lord of the Heavens and the Earth    

 

"Rab Al-Samawat Wal Ardh" means "The Lord of the Heavens and the Earth."

 

This Good Name of God was mentioned 12 times in the Holy Quran, in 13: 16; 17: 102; 18: 14; 19: 65; 21: 56; 26: 24; 37: 5; 38: 66; 43: 82; 44: 7; 45: 36 and 78: 37.

 

124. Rab Al-Samawat Wal Ardh Wama Baynahuma  (pronounced as  rabus samawati wal ardh wama baynahuma):

 

The Lord of the Heavens, the Earth, and What's in Between Them    

 

"Rab Al-Samawat Wal Ardh Wama Baynahuma" means "The Lord of the Heavens. the Earth, and What's in Between Them."

 

This Good Name of God was mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, in 19: 65; 26: 24; 35: 5; 38: 66; 44: 7 and 78: 37.

 

125. Rab Al-Mashariq Wa Al-Magharib  (pronounced as rabul mashariq wal magharib):

 

The Lord of the (Sun) Rises and the (Sun) Sets    

 

"Rab Al-Mashariq Wal Magharib" means "The Lord of the (Suns) Rises and the (Suns) sets." This is a reference to the sun rise and the sun set. Because it is used here in the plural form, it can be interpreted as a reference to the rises and sets of other suns, in other solar systems in the Universe.

 

Ibn Katheer was the closest to this interpretation referring to the rises and sets of "planets" (he did not mention "suns") as we see them in the sky every night.

Al-Qurtubi interpreted the plurality as the number of rises and sets the Sun does every year, that is the number of the days in a year (365 days), where the Sun rises from a different position and sets in a different position, day after day, all the year around.

This Good Name of God was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, once as the "Lord of the Rises," in 37: 5 and another as the "Lord of the Rises and the Sets," in 70: 40.

 

126. Rab Al-Mashriqayn Wa Rab Al-Maghribayn  (pronounced as rabul mashariq wal magharib):

 

The Lord of the Two (Sun) Rises and the Lord of the Two (Sun) Sets      

 

"Rab Al-Mashriqayn Wa Rab Al-Maghribayn" means "The Lord of the Two (Suns) Rises and the Lord of the Two (Suns) sets."

This Good Name of God was Verse 17 of Surat Al-Ra'hman (Chapter 55) of the Holy Quran.

 

Ibn Katheer interpreted the word "Two" as a reference to the rises and sets of the Sun and the Moon.

 

Al-Qurtubi interpreted the word "Two" as a reference to the longest and the shortest days of the year.

 

Al-Tabari interpreted the word "Two" as those in the Summer and the Winter, representing the two extreme positions of rising and setting in a year.

 

127. Rab Al-'Aalameen (pronounced as rabul 'aalameen):  The Lord of the Worlds    

 

This Good Name of Allah was mentioned ninety-three times in the Holy Quran, as in 1: 2; 2: 131; 5: 28.

It is written as Rab Al-'Aalameen but it maybe pronounced as rabbul 'aalameen, rabbil 'aalameen, or rabbal 'aalameen, depending on its relationship to other words in a sentence, according to the Arabic grammatical rules. Adding an apostrophe before the letter "a" indicates an Arabic glottal sound, which has no equivalence in English.

This Good Name of Allah was first mentioned in the second verse of Surat Al-Fatiha (1: 2). It means "The Lord of the Worlds," which include the Heavens, the Earth, and what is in between them, as stated in verses 26: 23-24.

﴿٢٣﴾ ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 26: 23-24).

Said Pharaoh, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) (Moussa, Moses) said, "The Lord of the heavens and the Earth, and that (which is) between them, if you should be convinced." (24) (Al-Shuara, 26: 23-24).

Thus, Rabbul 'Aalameen is the Lord of all these worlds where angels, humans, Jinn, and other creations live, by His care, compassion, and kindness.

***

***

Fifth, Attributes of Allah, (Concluded from the Holy Quran and the Sunna)

Some authors have constructed Attributes for God on the basis of verses in the Holy Quran, which describe God's actions, capabilities, or attributes, as adjectives or verbs. However, these are not God's descriptions of Himself directly, as He did in the case of the above list of His Good Names in the Holy Quran.

The following list of God's Attributes have been found in some lists, which claim them as Good Names of God. However, this author describes them as Attributes of God because they are not directly mentioned in the Holy Quran as Good Names of God. The interpretations, translations, and verse citations are all the sole responsibility of this author.

1. "Al-Jaleel" which means "The Majestic," an Attribute of God concluded from His Good Name of "Dhul-Jalali wal-Ikram," which means "The One to Whom Belongs the Majesty and Generosity. That Good Name of Allah was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in 55: 27 and 55: 78.

2. "Al-'Hakam" which means "The Judge," an Attribute of God concluded from His Good Name of "Al-'Hakeem," mentioned above as number 34.

3. "Al-'Adl," which means "The Just," an Attribute of God concluded from several verses in the Holy Quran commanding justice. In Verse 16: 95, God describes Himself as "Commanding Justice," and in another Verse (6: 115), He describes His word as "Truthful and Just."

4. "Al-Ba'ith," which means "The Resurrector," an Attribute of God concluded from His promise to "resurrect" people for the Day of Judgment. This verb was mentioned in several verses in the Holy Quran, such as 22: 7; 6: 36; and 64: 7.  

5. "Al-Mu'hsee," which means "The Counter," an Attribute of God concluded from the verb / a'hsa /, which means "to count," mentioned in three verses in the Holy Quran, in 19: 94; 58: 6; and 72: 28.

6. "Al-Wajid" which means "The Finder," an Attribute of God concluded from the verb / wajada / , which means "to find," mentioned in one verse, associated to God, in the Holy Quran, in 93: 6.

7. "Al-Majid" which means "The Glorious," an Attribute of God concluded from the verb / majada /, "to glorify," which is the same root verb of the Good Name of God, "Al-Majeed."

8. "Al-Muqsit" which means "The Just in Judgment," an Attribute of God concluded from three verses in which God describes Himself as "He loves those who are just in judgment," in 5: 42; 49: 9; and 60: 8. In Verse 3: 18, a verb is used to describe God's upholding of justice.

9. "Al-Mughni" which means "The Enricher," an Attribute of God concluded from verses in which God is described as the One Who enriches, as in 4: 130; 9: 28; 24: 32; and 24: 33. This Attribute shares the same root verb as the Good Name of God, "Al-Ghaniy."

10. "Al-Badi" which means "The First Creator," an Attribute of God concluded from thirteen verses, in which verbs refer to God as He began the creation and He is the One Who begins the creation then He is capable to begin it again, as in 7: 29; 9: 13; and 10: 4.

11. "Al-Nafi'u" (pronounce an-nafi'u), which means "The Beneficial," an Attribute of God concluded from several verses as in 48: 11; 22: 12; 10: 18; and 25: 55, in which God is described as the One Who benefits or allows somebody to benefit.

12. "Al-Dhur" which means "The Harmer," an Attribute of God concluded from several verses as in 48: 11; 22: 12; 10: 18; and 25: 55, in which God is described as the One Who harms or allows somebody to be harmed.

13. "Al-Qabidh," which means "The Gripper," Who will hold the Earth in His Grip (39: 67), and Who opens and closes His Grip with resources as He wills (2: 245).

14. "Al-Basit," which means "The Expander or Enlarger of Sustenance or Provision," according to His Will. This Attribute of God is concluded from the verb, "yabsutu," mentioned in ten verses of the Holy Quran, as in 2: 245; 13; 26; and 17: 30.

15. "Al-Mani'u" which means "The Shielder" or "The Preventer," an Attribute of God concluded from two verses mentioned in the Holy Quran (21: 43 and 59: 2), which state that nothing can "shield" people or "prevent them from being harmed" except God.

16. "Al-Rasheed" which means "The Wise Guide," an Attribute of God concluded from six verses in the Holy Quran, in which people are told to seek guidance from God. These verses are 2: 186; 21: 51; 18: 10; 19: 24; 72: 10; and  18: 17.

17. "Al-Rafi'u" (pronounced as ar-rafi'u), which means "The Exalter," or "The Elevator," The One Who raises or lifts up the rank of  whoever He wills. This Attribute of God comes from the same root verb of the Good Name of God, "Rafee'u Al-Darajat."

Though it is not directly mentioned in the Holy Quran, it is concluded from the description of God as the One who raises, exalts, elevates, or lifts up the rank of His Messengers (6: 83 for Ibrahim, 12: 76 for Yousuf, 19: 57; 3: 55; 4: 158 for Jesus, 94: 4 for Muhammed, pbb upon them), His Books (80: 14), and the believers (6: 165; 43: 32; 58: 11).

It is also concluded from the description of God as the One Who lifted up the heavens (13: 2; 79: 28; 55: 7; 88: 28; 52: 5), the Sinai Tour Mountain (2: 63; 2: 93; 4: 154), and His houses of worship (24: 36).

18.  "Al-Mu'iz" which means "The Honorer," The One Who gives honor or esteem to whoever He wills. This Attribute of God is concluded from six verses in the Holy Quran about Him as having "All Honor," in 4: 139; 10: 65; 35: 10; 37: 180; 63: 8; and 38: 82.

19. "Al-Mudhil" which means "The Dishonorer," or "The Humiliator," of whoever He wills. This Attribute of God is concluded from some verses in the Holy Quran about Him as does not need saints or patrons to protect Him from humiliation, as nonbelievers falsely claimed (17: 111) and about humiliated nonbelievers in the Day of Judgment (58: 20; 68: 43; 70: 44).

20. Al-Mumeet which means "The One Who causes the death of every living being." This Attribute of God is concluded from fourteen verses expressing it in the present tense, such as in 2: 28; 2: 258; and 3: 156, and four verses expressing it in the past tense, in 2: 259; 53: 44; 80: 21; and 40: 11. 

21. "Al-Muqaddim," means "The Warner in Advance," The One Who has warned people in advance through His Messengers to be good in this life in order to get His reward and avoid His punishment in the Hereafter. This Attribute of God was mentioned once in the form of a verb in the past tense in 50: 28.

22. "Al-Mu.akh-khir," means "The Delayer," The One Who puts the disobedient and non-believers last in the line of His mercy. This Attribute of God was mentioned as a verb in the present tense, once in 14: 42 in reference to delaying the punishment of the non-believers until the Day of Judgment and six times in 14: 10; 16: 61; 35: 45; 63: 11; and 71: 4 (twice) in reference to delaying death until a specific time for each person.

23. "Al-Mubdi' " means "The Originator of Creation," an Attribute of God concluded from 11 verses in the Holy Quran, in which it was mentioned 12 times in present and past tense forms, in 7: 29; 10: 4; 10: 34 (twice); 21: 104; 27: 64; 29: 19; 29: 20; 30: 11; 30: 27; 32: 7; and 85: 13..

24. "Al-Mu'eed" means "The Repeater of Creation," The One Who repeats His creation by bringing back His creatures from the dead for judgment. This Attribute of God is concluded from 12 verb forms in 11 verses, in 7: 29; 10: 4; 10: 34 (twice); 17: 51; 20: 29; 21: 104; 27: 64; 29: 19; 30: 11; 30: 27; and 85: 13.

25. "Al-Munshi' " means "The Establisher," an Attribute of God concluded from Verses 36:79 in reference to His establishment of the second life. It is also concluded from about 24 other verses in different verb and noun forms, as in 6: 6, 98, 133; 11:61; 13: 12; 23:14, 31, 42; 53:32; 56: 61, 72. 56:72; and 67:23.

Two Attributes, used by other authors, but have not been found by this author as related to words describing God in the Holy Quran.

1. "Al-Saboor," which means "The Patient." This Attribute is concluded from many verses in the Holy Quran, in which patience is mentioned as a characteristic of the Messengers of God (as in 6: 34 and 46: 35) and the believers (as in 13: 22 and 16: 42). However, this author has not found that this attribute is related to God, according to the Holy Quran.

2. "Al-Khafidh," which means "The Debaser," The One Who lowers whoever He wills. This Attribute is concluded from a verb mentioned twice in the Holy Quran (15: 88 and 26: 215), which commands "lowering one's wing" to parents and to believers, meaning to be kind to them. In a third verse (56: 3). The Day of Judgment is also mentioned as the Day in which people are either "lowered" or "lifted up," according to their deeds. However, this author has not found that this attribute is related to God, according to the Holy Quran.

***

***

Sixth, Table 1 containing the full list of the 127 Good Names of Allah, found in the Holy Quran, by this author

 

  

Table 1 (Arabic)

The Full List of 127 Good Names of Allah in Arabic, as Mentioned in the Holy Quran

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The following is the English translation of the above Arabic list of the 127 Good Names of Allah, identified by this author directly from the Holy Quran. All of them start with the definite article "The," which is not included in the table only for space purposes.

Table 1 (English)

The Longer List of 127 Good Names of Allah, as Mentioned in the Holy Quran, Translated into English

Allah
God
The God God of the People No Other God But He Beneficent Merciful Most Merciful  King Eternal Owner Owner of the Dominion
Owner of the Day of Judgment  Holy  Peace  Believer in His Godhood Dominant  Rare in His Might Compeller Majestically Proud Creator Best of Creators
 Maker,  Curer Fashioner, Shaper Constant Forgiver Inherently Forgiver Forgiver
 Source of Forgiveness

Vast in Forgiveness

Best of  Forgivers

Constant Subduer
 
 Subduer
Bestower Sustainer  Best of Sustainers  Judge  Best of Judges Knowledge-able Knower of the Unseen Knower of the Unseen and Seen Knower of the Unknowns Hearer
 Seer  Wise Judge  Best of Judges Wisest Judge  Gentle to His Creations  Expert Forbearer  Great Inherently Thankful   Thankful
 Most High Inherently Great Preserver  Keen Preserver  Source of Sustenance Reckoner  Fastest of Calculators  Fast in Reckoning Generous Watchful
 Nearby Responder  Best of Responders  Vast  Loving Glorious Witness  Truth Patron Powerful
Strong Guardian Supporter Praised Giver of Life Eternally Living Sustainer of the Universe  One Uniquely One Ultimate Provider
 Able Capable Inherently Capable  Best of the Capable  First  Last Manifest  Latent  Higher Source of Goodness
Acceptor of Repentance Avenger Pardoner Extremely Merciful Gatherer Rich  Light  Guide Creative Inheritor
 Best of Inheritors Originator Everlasting  Good  Best of Supporters  Source of Righteous-ness  Utmost in Power  Severe in Punish-ment Severe in Penalty One With Great Bounty
 Source of Mercy Full of Forgive-ness  One with Power  One with Severe Punish-ment  One with Severe Revenge  One with Ascents  One with the Throne  One with Majesty and Honor  High in Ranks Nothing is Like Him
 Lord  Lord of the Throne Lord of  Heavens and Earth Lord of Heavens, Earth, and in Between Lord of the Sun Rises and Sun Sets Lord of the Two Sun Rises and Two Sun Sets  Lord of the Worlds      

 

Seventh Table 2 containing the 99 Good Names of Allah, selected by this author from the full list of 127 Good Names, after the exclusion of other Names, which derivatives of the same verb

Table 2 (Arabic)

The Shortened List of 99 Good Names of Allah in Arabic, as Mentioned in the Holy Quran

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Table 2 (English)

The Shortened List of 99 Good Names of Allah in English, as Mentioned in the Holy Quran

Allah,
God

No Other God But He

Beneficent

Merciful

King

Holy

Peace

Believer in His Godhood

Dominant

Rare in His Might

Compeller

Majestically Proud

Creator

Maker,  Curer

Fashioner, Shaper

Forgiver

Constant Forgiver

Constant Subduer

Bestower

Sustainer

Judge

Knowledge-able

Hearer

Seer

Wise Judge

Gentle to His Creations

Expert

Forbearer

Great

Inherently Thankful

Most High

Inherently Great

Preserver

Keen Preserver

Source of Sustenance

Reckoner

Generous

Watchful

Nearby

Responder

Vast

Loving

Glorious

Wit-ness

Truth

Patron

Powerful

Strong

Guardian

Supporter

Praised

Giver of Life

Eternally Living

Universe

Sustainer

One

Uniquely One

Ultimate Provider

Able

First

Last

Manifest

Latent

Higher

Source of Goodness

Acceptor of Repentance

Avenger

Pardoner

Extremely Merciful

Gatherer

Rich

Light

Guide

Creative

Inheritor

Originator

Good

Everlasting

Source of Righteous-ness

Source of Forgiveness

Utmost in Power

Severe in Punish-ment

Severe in Penalty

One With Great Bounty

One with Mercy

One with Forgive-ness

One with Power

One with Severe Punishment

One with Severe Revenge

One with Ascents

One with the Throne

One  with Majesty and Honor High in Ranks Nothing is Like Him Lord Lord of the Throne Lord of Heavens, Earth, and in Between Lord of the Sun Rises and Sun Sets Lord of the Two Sun Rises and Two Sun Sets Lord of the Worlds  

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Notes 

[1] The description of the Shaytan (Satan) as stoned (rajeem, in Arabic) came in 6 verses of the Holy Quran, which are 3: 36, 15: 17, 15: 34, 16: 98, 38: 77, and 81: 25. It means that the Shaytan was cursed and expelled from the Mercy of Allah after his disobedience to Him. That is why we are instructed to take refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan, as mentioned in verses 16: 98, 23: 97, and 114: 1-6.

The Shaytan is also described as stoned, in reference to throwing balls of fire at him and his offspring, when they try to approach the lower heaven for listening, as we learn from verses 37: 6-10 of the Holy Quran.

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh), also mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be upon him, threw stones at the Shaytan, when he tried to dissuade him away from obedience to Allah, praise to him, as we learn from the following Hadith:

: " " ( : 1156).

Abdullah Bin Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them (mAbpwt) both, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "When Ibrahim (Abraham), the Friend of Allah, came to do the pilgrimage rituals (in Makkah), the Shaytan (Satan) appeared to him near (the first) Al-Aqaba hurdle (a little high place on his way). Ibrahim threw seven stones at him, which caused him to sink in the earth. Then, the Shaytan appeared to him near the second hurdle, and Ibrahim threw seven stones at him, which caused him to sink in the earth. Then, the Shaytan appeared to him near the third hurdle, and Ibrahim threw seven stones at him, which caused him to sink in the earth" (Al-Albani, Sahih Al-Targheeb: 1156).  

[2] The definite article (the) in Arabic takes two forms: "El" (Il) and "Al." While the latter, "Al," has been the standard in usage all over the Arabic-speaking world, some Arabs may use the "El" (Il) form in writing their last names, such as in the case of this author. The "El" form was also used in Andalusia (Arab Spain), and stayed in the Spanish language as well as the Spanish-speaking world until today, Such as in the cases of common names like El Salvador and El Paso.

Almost all usage of the definite article in the Holy Quran is in the "Al" form but there are three exceptions. The El (Il) form is used in the reference to Prophet "El-Yass" (Elijah or Ilijah) in Verse 85 of Surat Al-Anam (Chapter 6) and to his family, "El-Yassin," in Verse 130 of Surat Al-Safat (Chapter 37). In addition, the definite article used in the reference to Prophet "El-Yassa'," is without the Hamza under the Alef, for which the English vowels "E" or "I" would be closer to the correct pronunciation, instead of the standard "A."

 

[3] The Arabic text of the cited verses of the Holy Quran in this article is copied from www.tanzil.com and www.quranexplorer.com .  

The Interpretation of the verses of the Holy Quran, mentioned in this article, is primarily based on the works of the four early prominent Islamic scholars, known for their interpretations of the Holy Quran. These are Al-Tabari (Died in 310 Hijriya), Al-Qurtubi (Died in 671 Hijriya), Ibn Katheer (Died in 774 Hijriya), and Al-Siyouti (849-911 Hijriya, 1445-1505). They employ their knowledge of Arabic as well as their comprehensive knowledge of the Holy Quran, using verses in one context to explain other verses in other contexts. Their most important contribution, though, is including explanations from the Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, and from his companions, may Allah be pleased with them. Complete works of these scholars are published at the official website of the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Islamic affairs, which can be accessed at: http://quran.al-islam.com .

Though this author benefited from the works of all of the four scholars in writing this Chapter, may Allah reward all of them, he benefited most from the wonderful work of Al-Qurtubi, who wrote a two-volume book, Al-Asna, in the Explanation of the Good Names of Allah and His Attributes. . It can be accessed at:

Quranicthought Top| ( )

Moreover, this author has benefited tremendously from the wonderful works of a website called Tanzil, "Revelation" (http://tanzil.net/#1:1). This website has a search function which allows users to find any word in the Holy Quran, giving statistics about it, and providing 13 English translations of the Holy Quran, in addition to translations to other languages. Moreover, Tanzil provides Quran recitations for 18 famous Arabic reciters, in addition to one English recitation and two Persians, allowing a continuous recitation of the Holy Quran. May Allah give those who have founded, contributed to, and operated this website the best of rewards here and in the Hereafter.

Though this author consulted with the interpretations of these renowned scholars and translators, the translation of the meanings of the Quranic verses as well as the interpretations related to them in this and other articles are his sole responsibility.

The name of Bin Katheer can also be written as Ibn Katheer. In either case, it means the son of Katheer, like in English with Jackson, which meant originally the son of Jack. The rule in Arabic is writing it as Ibn if it is used with one name, like Ibn Katheer. However, it is written as Bin if it comes between two names, like Muhammed Bin Ahmed.

[4]  There are three Arabic vowels and their three strong forms (Tanween, i.e. adding "N"). The first is the Fat'ha, which maybe expressed in English by the sound / a /, with its strong form of / an /. The second is the Kassra, which maybe expressed by the sound / i /, with its strong form of / in /. The third Arabic vowel is the Dhamma, which maybe expressed by the sound / u /, with its strong form of / un /.

Following Arabic grammatical rules, a common name such as "Ahmed" (or Ahmad) maybe written and pronounced as Ahmada, Ahmadan, Ahmadi, Ahmadin, Ahmadu, and Ahmadun.

While all these six vowel forms are written in the Arabic text of the Holy Quran, not all of them are pronounced in recitation, particularly at the end of each verse. However, they maybe pronounced when several verses are continuously recited.

Arabic written words are mainly composed of consonants. Vowels are added as symbols over or under a letter, as in the case of the text of the Holy Quran. However, in books and written media, only basic consonants and essential vowels are written as letters. No vowel symbols are added, as it is expected from an average educated Arabic speaker to know how to pronounce the words without vowel symbols.

[5] Using an Apostrophe and Underlined Some Arabic Letters in the Quran transliteration

Some Arabic letters and sounds have no counterparts in the English alphabet and the English phonetic transcription. There are nine Arabic sounds which have no equivalence in the English alphabet. These are (    ). Some translators underline the closest English letters to these Arabic letters, in order to tell readers that these are pronounced differently in Arabic. The closest sounds expressing the Arabic letters in parentheses, from right to left, are ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ). However, underlining them as ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ) conveys the message that these are different from the English sounds expressed by the letters of the English alphabet.

The two Arabic letters and sounds of Tha ( ) and Dhal (   ), expressed by the two English letters "th" at the beginning of the English words "three" and "that," are transliterated  as / th / and / th /, respectively.

This author uses this same method of underlining these letters, with the exception of the two Arabic letters expressed by the / h / and / a / sounds. Instead of underlining them, he adds an apostrophe before the letter to become / 'h / and / 'a / respectively. Using an apostrophe instead of underling a letter is for practical reasons only. First, these two letters are more frequently used than the other letters in the list. Second, it is easier to use the apostrophe on keyboards than adding underlining after writing.

As an example, an apostrophe is used before the English letter / a / to express the eighteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ayn /, as in the case of translating the Good Name of God, Al-'Azeez, the tenth on the list.

An apostrophe is also used before the English letter / h / to express the sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ha /, as in the case of translating the Good Name of God, Al-A'had,  

The above usage of an apostrophe to help express the Arabic sound / 'a / may not be enough if the sound occurs at the end of a word, such as in the case of the Good Name of God, number 30, "Al-Samee'u." This Good Name of God is pronounced as "Al-Samee' " without conjugation. However, because the sound / 'a / occurs at the end of the word, the pronunciation may become distorted as / as-samee'a / instead of / as-samee ' /. As a solution, this author is using the conjugated form of the noun as a subject to become / as-samee'u /, the closest to the Arabic pronunciation.

[6] Texts of the Prophets two Hadiths, about the greatness of the Verse of the Chair (2: 255), as it includes the greatest of Gods Names, Al-Hayyu Al-Qayyoom, are  as follows:


: " ! . : : . : ! . : . : : () ! " ( : 1471).

Companion Obay Bin Kab, may Allah be pleased with him (mAbpwh), said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon hm (pbbuh) said:
 
O, father of Monther! Do you know which verse of Gods Book you have is the greatest? I said: Allah and His Messenger know better (than me). (When he repeated the question) I said: Allah, there is no other god but Him (the Verse of the Chair). Then, he touched my chest and said: May (Allah) make learning easy on you, O, father of Monther! By Allah, this verse has a tongue and two lips exalting the King at the stem of the Throne (Al-Albani, Sahih Al-Targhib: 1471).

: " : " ( : 979).

Companion Abu Omama Al-Bahili, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh said: If a believer mentions the Greatest Name of Allah in calling upon Him, his call will be answered. (This Greatest Name of Allah is mentioned) in three suras (chapters) of the Holy Quran: Al-Baqara (2), Al-Imran (3), and Ta-Ha (20) (Al-Albani, Sahih Al-Jami: 979).
 
Note: The three suras (chapters), mentioned in the Hadith, include three verses (2: 255, 3: 2, and 20: 111), which mention the two Good Names of Allah: Al-Hayyu, Al-Qayoom. This means that one of them is the Greatest Name of Allah, praise to Him, Who knows better.  
 
[7] The text of the Prophets Hadith about his intercession on the Day of Judgment is as follows:

( ): " : ! . : . : . : ! . : " ( : 813 : ).

Companion Salman Al-Farisi, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh said (in part of the Intercession Hadith): When (the Prophet) makes prostration, he will be called: O, Muhammed! Lift your head, ask and you will be given, ask for intercession and you will get it, and call (upon your Lord) and you will be answered. Then, Allah inspires him to say phrases of praise, thanks, and glorification of Him, which no other creature was ever inspired. Then, he says: O, my Lord, my Community (of Muslims), repeating it three times. Then, he asks for permission to make prostration again, and he is permitted.
 
Then, Allah inspires him to say phrases of praise, thanks, and glorification of Him, which no other creature was ever inspired. Then, he says: O, my Lord, my Community (of Muslims), repeating it two or three times (Al-Albani, Takhrij Kitab Al-Sunna: 813, Sahih according to the rules of the two shaikhs, Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
 
[8] Here are texts of three Hadiths about the Chair and the Throne:

: " " ( : 45 ).

Companion Ibn Abbas, mAbpwt both, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh said: The Chair is where the Feet are (placed), and nobody can estimate (the size of) the Throne (Al-Albani, Mukhasser Al-Olo: 45, Sahih Mawqoof).

: ( : 105 ).

Companion Abdullah Bin Massaud, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh said: Between the farthest (seventh) heaven and the Chair is (a distance of) five hundred years. Between the Chair and the water is the same (distance of). The Throne is above the water, and Allah is above the Throne. However (despite these distances), nothing of your deeds is hidden from Him (Al-Dhahabi, Al-Arsh: 105, its authentication is Sahih).  

: ( : 389 ).

In another version of the same Hadith, Companion Ibn Massaud, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh said: Between the lowest (first) heaven and the one next to (above) it, is (a distance of) five hundred years. Between every heaven and the one next to (above) it, is (a distance of) five hundred years. Between the seventh heaven and the Chair is (a distance of) five hundred years. Between the Chair and the water is (a distance of) five hundred years. The Throne is above the water, and Allah is above the Throne. However (despite these distances), nothing of your deeds is hidden from Him (Ibn Baz, Sharh Kitab Al-Tawhid: 389, Sahih and good).

[9] Heres the Arabic text the translation of the Hadith about how the Prophet, pbbuh, saw Allah, during his Night Journey:

 

Abdullah Bin Shafiq, mAbbwh, said to (Companion) Abu Dhar, mAbpwh: If I had seen the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, I would have asked him (a question). He said: Would you have asked him about what? He said: I would have asked him: Have you seen your Lord (during the Night Journey)? Abu Dhar sad: I asked him (about it), and he said: I saw Light (Sahih Muslim: 178).

: . : : : : " " ( : 178).

[10] The olive tree is mentioned six times in the Holy Quran, in verses Al-Anam, 6: 99, Al-Anam, 6: 141, Al-Nahl, 16: 11, Al-Noor, 24: 35, Abassa, 80: 29, and Al-Teen, 95: 11.

 

[11] Allah, praise to Him, guides to His Light whom He wills, particularly those who believe in Him and do good deeds (4: 175, 10: 9), follow His commands (5: 16), and turn back to Him (42: 13). He will guide them, illuminating their path with His Light. However, He does not guide those who choose to be wrongdoers (2: 258), disobedient to Him (5: 108), disbelievers (2: 264), and those who insist on their disbelief in Him (39: 3), as follows:

( 4: 175).

( 5: 16).

ۖ  ( 10: 9).

( 42: 13).

( 2: 258).

( 5: 108).

( 2: 264).

( 39: 3).

So, those who believe in Allah and hold fast to Him, He will admit them to mercy from Himself and bounty and guide them to Himself on a straight path (Al-Nissa, 4: 175).

(a clear Book) By which Allah guides those who pursue His pleasure (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 16).

Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds - their Lord will guide them because of their faith (Younus, 10: 9).

Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back (to Him) (Al-Shoura, 42: 13).

and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people (Al-Baqara, 2: 258).

Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 108).

Allah does not guide the disbelieving people (Al-Baqara, 2: 264).

Allah does not guide he who is a liar and (confirmed) disbeliever (Al-Zumar, 39: 3).

[12] See Al-Maqshis valuable research paper about the treatment of the topic of Gods physical features by Muslim scholars in various centuries: 

Al-Maqshi, Muhammed Bin Abdullah. 1439/2017. Treatment of Gods Physical Features (in Arabic). Published at Al-Alouka Al-Shariya.

 

. : " ." : 2\4\1439 21\12\2017 .

 

https://www.alukah.net/sharia/0/123931/#ixzz6xlGDHqLL

 

[13] In addition to the Hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas, mAbpwt both, the text of which was mentioned in Endnote # 7, heres another version of the Hadith:

 

: " " ( : 45).

 

Companion Said Bin Jubair, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh said: The Chair is where the Feet are (placed), and nobody (no human) can estimate (the size of) the Throne (Al-Albani, Mukhtasser Al-Olo: 45, Sahih Mawqoof).

 

[14] The five mandatory ways of worship (the proclamation of faith, prayers, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage) have been mentioned in many verses of the Holy Quran, such as the following verses:

ٰ ۚ ٰ ( 3: 18).

ٰ ۗ ( 33: 40).

ۗ ( 2: 110).

( 2: 183).

ۚ ( 3: 97).

Allah has witnessed that there is no deity except Him, and (so have) the angels, and those of knowledge (that He is) maintaining (His creation) in justice. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-Imran, 3: 18).

 

Muhammad was not the father of one of your men, but (he was) the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing (Al-Ahzab, 33: 40).

 

And establish prayer and give zakat, and whatever good you put forward for yourselves - you will find it with Allah. Indeed, Allah of what you do, is Seeing (Al-Baqara, 2: 110).

 

O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting, as it was decreed upon those before you, that you may become righteous (Al-Baqara, 2: 183).

 

And (due) to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House - for whoever is able to find thereto a way (Al-Imran, 3: 97).

[15] Heres the three verses, which were mentioned about the reason Allah created Jinn and humans:

( 23: 115).

﴿٣٨﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٩﴾ ( 44: 38-39).

﴿٥٦﴾ ﴿٥٧﴾ ﴿٥٨﴾ ( 51: 56).

Then, did you think that We created you uselessly (in vain) and that to Us you would not be returned?" (Al-Muminoon, 23: 115).

And We did not create the heavens and earth and that between them in play. (38) We did not create them except in truth, but most of them do not know. (39) (Al-Dukhan, 44: 38-39).

And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me. (56) I do not want from them any provision, nor do I want them to feed Me. (57) Indeed, it is Allah who is the [continual] Provider, the firm possessor of strength. (58) (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 56-58).

Heres the Hadith, which summarizes the five mandatory ways of worship (Ibadat):

: " " ( : 8 : 4695 : 2610 : 4990 : 63 : 367 ѡ : 2).

Abdullah Bin Omar, mAbpwt both, narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: Islam is to proclaim that theres no other deity than Allah, and Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, to establish prayer, give zakat, fast (the month of) Ramadhan, and make the pilgrimage to the House (of Allah), if youre able to find a way thereto (Muslim: 8, Abu Dwaood: 4695, Al-Tirmidhi: 2610, Al-Nissa-i: 4990, Ibn Maja: 63, Ahmed: 367, and Ibn Manda: 2, with little differences between them).

[16] Here are the verses which contained the Arabic command verb "ittaqo," (from its root, the word Taqwa is derived) meaning "avoid:

... ٰ ۖ ۚ ۖ ( 5: 2).

( 3: 131).

ۖ ( 8: 25).

And do not let the hatred of a people, for having obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram, lead you to transgress. And cooperate in (doing) Bir (righteousness) and in Taqwa (avoidance of Gods punishment)., but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And avoid the punishment of Allah. Indeed, Allah is severe in punishment (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 2).

And avoid (punishment in) the Fire, which has been prepared for the disbelievers (Al-'Imran, 3: 131).

And avoid a trial (an ordeal) which will not strike those who have wronged among you exclusively, and know that Allah is severe in penalty (Al-Anfal, 8; 25).

***

Heres the Arabic text of verse 2: 177 (about the two concepts of Bir and Taqwa):

ٰ ٰ ٰ ٰ ۖ ۗ ٰ ۖ ٰ ( 2: 177).

[17] Here are the verses which mention meanings of the word I'hsan:

  ٰ ٰ    ( 16: 90).

    (  41: 33).

ٰ