The Three Islamic Holiest Places of Worship

 



Al-Jazeerah
Al-Haram Mosque in Makkah The Prophet's Mosque in Madinah . Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound in Jerusalem

 

Islam: God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Table of Contents

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise


7.
Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?  

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an  

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure

 

1. Islamic Proclamation of Faith

 

2. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

3. Giving Zakah (Charity)

 

4. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims

 

5. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar

 

1. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 

 

2. Angels

 

3. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  

 

4. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

5. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran

 

6. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  

 

7. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

 

8. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

9. The Last Day: The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

 

10. Qada and Qadar: God's Foreknowledge and Decree

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The No (La) Commands

 

3. The Imperative Commands 

 

***

 

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

 

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

 

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

 

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

 

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

 

Links to Islamic topics 2006

 

Links to Islamic topics 2005

 

Links to Islamic topics 2004

 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

 

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

 

 

 

Islam:

God's Message of Guidance to Humanity

 

III. 9

 

The Last Day and Its Four Events:

 

The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

 

 

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

9th of Shawwal, 1436 - 25th of July 2015

 

Completed on 28th of Safar, 1437 - 10th of December 2015

 

***

 

:

 

 

 

1436 - 2015

 

***

 

ٰ

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The belief in the Last Day, which includes the four major events of the Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment, is the fifth manifestation of the second level of faith, Iman, following the belief in Allah, His Angels, His Messages to humanity , and His Messengers.

 

This author has attempted to divide the Last Day into these four events or phases only for educational purposes, to make it easier on readers, but there is no claim about the certainty of the division or the sequence of these events. Allah, praise to Him, described Himself in the Holy Quran as Asra'ul Hasibeen, the Fastest of Reckoners (6: 62), which may mean that all these events may take a very short time, on the same Last Day.

 

This belief in the Last Day is a major component of the Islamic religion, as it emphasizes accountability for a person's actions during his/her first life on earth and the reward or punishment that follows in the hereafter.

 

The Holy Quran contains a lot of detailed descriptions of what will happen during the four events of the Last Day, as well as the everlasting life in Paradise or Punishment in the Hellfire, which will follow.

 

In this Chapter, verses from the Holy Quran will be presented to describe the four major events of the Last Day, emphasizing the Islamic principle that life on Earth is just a test for people, who will be rewarded or punished in the Hereafter, according to their deeds in this life. The believers who lead a righteous life on Earth, being good to themselves, to their families, to their communities, and to the world will be rewarded an everlasting life in Paradise. Those who willfully cause harm to themselves and others will be punished in the Hellfire.

 

Allah, praise to Him, who created human beings, wanted them to lead a happy life on Earth, by obeying His commands, all of which are for their good. He does not want them to harm themselves or others. Therefore, He has established this system of sanctions to reward those who are good and punish the aggressors.

 

It is sad that there are people who do not seriously believe in the Last Day, in which they will stand before their Creator for reckoning and judgment. Had they believed that they would be held responsible for their evil actions in this life, humans would not have suffered, individually and collectively as a result of all these wars, corruption, and oppression.

 

The translation of the meanings of the Holy Quran verses is basically drawn from the translation of Sahih International, which is published at the www.tanzil.net  website. However, this author is solely responsible for the changes made to the translation, which were mainly based on the interpretations of the three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer). In transliterating Arabic words, some letters are underlined or preceded by an apostrophe, indicating a different Arabic sound. [1]

 

 

Names Associated with the Last Day and Its Four Major Events (The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment), as mentioned in the Holy Quran

 

There are 29 names in the Holy Quran referring to the major events that will happen during the Last Day, 20 of these names are preceded by the word "Day" (Yawm) and 5 of them are followed by it. There are also many other names describing the events of that Day, only four of them are mentioned here. [2]

 

There are many adjectives describing the Last Day and what will happen in it, some of which have been mentioned here for clarification purposes. Moreover, there are many other names for the Last Day, which have been deducted by Islamic scholars from the Quran descriptions. These should not be confused with the specific names mentioned in the following list, which are mentioned directly and clearly in the Holy Quran. [3]

 

These  29 names maybe divided into four sequential categories, related to the four sequential events of the Last Day. The first category includes 7 names related to the beginning of the Last Day, 6 names related to the Day of Resurrection, and 16 names related to the Day of Reckoning. Then, a fourth category follows containing Judgment by reward or punishment.

 

***



I. The HOUR: The Beginning of The Last Day


The first event or phase of the Last Day starts with the first blowing of the trumpet, which is also referred to as the Hour and the True Promise. The Trumpet sound kills people and most of other creatures, except for those Allah wills for them to survive it. 

1. The Last Day (Al-Yawmul Akhir) is mentioned in the Holy Quran 26 times, the first of which is in Verse 8 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2) of the Holy Quran. It is described as the Last Day because because there will be no night after it. [4]

  ( 2: 8).

 

 

And of the people are some who say, "We believe in Allah and the Last Day," but they are not believers (Al-Baqara, 2: 8).



2. The Hour
(As-Sa'a), is mentioned in the Holy Quran 39 times, the first of which is in Verse 31 of Surat Al-Ana'am (Chapter 6) of the Holy Quran. It is mentioned with the word "Day" in Surat Al-Jathiya (45: 27). It is described as "The Hour" because it starts the Last Day, Resurrection, and Reckoning. The verses emphasize that the Hour is nearer than what people may think.


 ۚ ( 45: 27).


And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the Earth. And the Day the Hour happens - that Day the falsifiers will lose (Al-Jathiya, 45: 27).



3. The Day the Trumpet is Blown (Yawma Yunfa
khu fis Soor) for the first time leads to the death of those living in heavens and on Earth, except those whom Allah wills for them to survive. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran 5 times, in 6: 73, 27: 87, 39: 68, 69: 13, 50: 20 and 69: 13.

Both events of Blowing the Trumpet are mentioned in one verse in Surat Al-Zumar (39: 68), which states:

 ۖ ٰ ( 39: 68).


"When the Trumpet will be blown, all those who are in the heavens and on Earth will fall dead, except those whom Allah wills (for them to survive). Then, when it will be blown another (time), they will be standing and looking on!" (Al-Zumar, 39: 68).



4. The Day of the Cataclysmic Sound (Al-Qari'a), which may be caused by the the first blowing of the Trumpet. When they hear it, they will fall dead. The word "Al-Qari'a" was mentioned four times in the Holy Quran, once in Al-'Haaqa (69: 4) and three times in Surat Al-Qari'a (101: 1-3).

The Arabic root verb of Al-Qari'a is / qara'a /, which means to cause a persistent noisy sound, such as the bell ringing in contemporary Arabic.

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤( 101: 1- 4).


The Day of the Cataclysmic Sound (1) What is the Day of the Cataclysmic Sound? (2) And what can make you know what is  the Day of the Cataclysmic Sound? (3) It is the Day when people will be like moths, dispersed, (4) (Al-Qari'a, 101: 1-4).



5.The Day of the Deafening Blast (Al-Saakha) may be caused by the the first blowing of the Trumpet. When people hear it, they will fall dead. It was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat 'Abassa (80: 33).

﴿٣٣﴾ ﴿٣٤﴾ ﴿٣٥﴾ ﴿٣٦﴾ ﴿٣٧( 80: 33).


But when there comes the Deafening Blast (33) On the Day a man will flee from his brother (34) And his mother and his father (35) And his wife and his children, (36) For every man, that Day, will be a matter adequate for him. (37) ('Abassa, 80: 33).



6. The Day of the Coming Event (Al-Waqi'a) is a reference to the the greatest earthquake, which follows the first blowing of the Trumpet. It was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in Al-Waqi'a (56: 1) and in Al-'Haaqa (69: 15).

ٰ

 

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤﴾ ﴿٥﴾ ﴿٦( 56: 1-6).


In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

When the Coming Event occurs, (1) There is, at its occurrence, no denial. (2) It will bring down (some) and raise up (others). (3) When the Earth is strongly shaken (4) And the mountains are broken down, crumbling (5) And become dust dispersing. (6) (Al-Waqi'a, 56: 1-6).


﴿١٣﴾ ﴿١٤ ﴿١٥( 69: 13-15).


Then, when the Trumpet is blown with one blast (13) And the Earth and the mountains are lifted and leveled with one blow - (14) Then on that Day, the Coming Event will have occurred, (15)  (Al-'Haqqa, 69: 13-15).



7. The Day of the Earth Trembling (Al-Rajifah), refers to the Day in which the Greatest Eearthquake happens in all of the Earth, following the first blowing of the Trumpet. This leads to the destruction of the Earth surface, including the mountains, which also leads to the death of the remaining people. It was mentioned twice, in Verse 14 of Surat Al-Muzzammil (Chapter 73) and Verse 6 of Surat Al-Nazi'at (Chapter 79) of the Holy Quran.

( 73: 14).


On the Day the earth and the mountains will tremble and the mountains will become a heap of sand pouring down (Al-Muzzammil, 73: 14).


﴿٦﴾ ﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ﴿٩( 79: 1-9).

 

On the Day of the (Earth) Trembling (Al-Rajifa) (6) Which will be followed by a subsequent one (Al-Radifa). (7) Hearts, that Day, will tremble, (8) Their eyes humbled. (9) (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 1-9). 




8. The Day of the Earth Leveling (Al-Dakkah), refers to the Day in which an earthquake happens in all of the Earth, following the first blow of the Trumpet. This leads to the destruction of the Earth surface, including the mountains, which also leads to the death of the remaining people. It was mentioned twice in Verse 13 of Surat Al-'Haqqa (Chapter 69) and Verse 21 of Surat Al-Fajr (Chapter 89) of the Holy Quran. 

﴿١٣ ﴿١٤﴾  ( 69: 13).

 

 

Then, when the Trumpet is blown with one blast (13) And the earth and the mountains are lifted and leveled with one blow  (14)  (Al-'Haaqa, 69: 13).


( 89: 21).

 

No! When the earth has been leveled - pounded and crushed (Al-Fajr, 89: 21).



9. The Day of the Greatest Earthquake (Az-Zalzala) is a reference to the the greatest earthquake, which follows the first blowing of the Trumpet. It is described in Surat Al-Zalzala (99: 1-8).

ٰ

 

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤﴾ ٰ ﴿٥﴾ ﴿٦﴾ ﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨( 99: 1-8).


In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

When the Earth is shaken with its (Greatest) Earthquake (1) And the Earth discharges its heavy materials (2) And the human says, "What is (wrong) with it?" - (3) That Day, it will report its news (4) Because your Lord has inspired (commanded) it. (5) That Day, the people will depart separated to be shown (the result of) their deeds. (6) So, whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it, (7) And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it. (8) (Al-Zalzala, 99: 1-8).




Description of the Last Day Events

 

The Last Day will not happen until certain prophecies are come to pass. Some of these have already passed, such as the mission of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh, end of slavery, as well as the Bedouin Arab goat and sheep herders constructing the highest buildings in the world (in Dubai). The remaining signs (prophecies), which will precede the Hour include the emergence of the Guided One (Al-Mahdi), the rule of the Fake Messiah (Al-Dajjal), the second coming of Messiah, 'Eissa (Jesus) the Son of Mary, Yajooj and Majooj (Gog and Maygog), and the Sun rising from the West. [5]

 

When all of these and other signs happen, then the Last Day starts, which is referred to as such because it is a barren day that does not beget a night, as Allah, praise to Him, described it in Surat Al-'Haj (22: 55).

 

 

ٰ

 

ٰ ( 22: 55). 

 

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

But those who disbelieve will not cease to be in doubt of it until the Hour comes upon them unexpectedly or there comes to them the punishment of a Barren Day  (Al-Haj, 22: 55). 

 

 

Another explanation maybe that the Light of the Lord will shine on Earth, which stops the night darkness from happening, as maybe understood from Verse of Surat Al-Zumar (Chapter ) of the Holy Quran.

 

( 39: 69).

 

 

And the Earth will shine with the Light of its Lord,  (Al-Zumar, 39: 69).

 

 

The "Last Day" (  ) is mentioned 26 times in the Holy Quran. [6]  In these verses, the belief in the "Last Day" is mentioned as a characteristic of believers, who believe in Allah and the Last Day He promised humans, to reward them for their good deeds, as mentioned in verses 2: 62 and 2: 177.

 

 

ٰ    ( 2: 62).

 

   

Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] - those (among them) who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness - will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve  (Al-Baqara, 2: 62).

 

 

ٰ ٰ ( 2: 177).

 

 

Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but (true) righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it  (Al-Baqara, 2: 177).

 

 

The First Blowing of the Trumpet

 

The Day the Trumpet is Blown (Yawma Yunfakhu fis Soor) for the first time leads to the death of those living in the heavens and on Earth, except those whom Allah wills for them to survive. The angel Issrafeel, peace be to him, is going to be the blower of the Trumpet. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran 5 times, in 6: 73, 27: 87, 39: 68, 50: 20, and 69: 13, as follows:

 


 ۚ   ( 6: 73).

 

 ۚ   ( 27: 87).

 

 ۖ ٰ   ( 39: 68).

 

 ۚ ٰ   ( 50: 20).

 

﴿١٣﴾ ﴿١٤﴾ ﴿١٥( 69: 13-15).


  ( 36: 49).

 

 

And His is the dominion (on) the Day the Trumpet is blown (Al-Ana'am, 6: 73).

 

And (warn of) the Day the Trumpet will be blown, and whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth will be terrified except whom Allah wills. And all will come to Him humbled (Al-Naml, 27: 87).

 

And the Trumpet will be blown, and whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth will fall dead except whom Allah wills (Al-Zumar, 39: 68).

 

And the Trumpet will be blown. That is the Day of [carrying out] the threat (Qaf, 50: 20).

 

Then when the Trumpet is blown with one blast (13) And the earth and the mountains are lifted and leveled with one blow - (14) Then on that Day, the Resurrection will occur, (15) (Al-'Haaqa, 69: 13-15).

They do not await except one blast which will seize them while they are disputing (Ya Seen, 36: 49).

 

***

 

 

The First Earthquake

 

The first and second earthquakes are mentioned in verses 6 and 7 of Surat Al-Nazi'at (Chapter 79) of the Holy Quran.

 

 

﴿٦ ﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ﴿٩( 79: 1-9).

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

On the Day of the (Earth) trembling (Al-Rajifa) (6) Which will be followed by a subsequent one (Al-Radifa). (7) Hearts, that Day, will tremble, (8) Their eyes humbled. (9) (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 1-9). 

 

 

The Day of the Coming Event (Al-Waqi'a) is a reference to the the greatest earthquake, which follows the first blowing of the Trumpet. The greatest earthquake is described in (Surat Al-Zalzala (99: 1-8). Al-Waqi'a was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in Al-Waqi'a (56: 1) and in Al-'Haaqa (69: 15).

 

 

  ( 73: 14).

 

 

On a Day whereon the earth and the mountains shall quake, and the mountains shall become a sand-heap poured forth (Al-Muzzammil, 73: 14).

 

 

 

 ۚ  ( 27: 88).

 

 

And you see the mountains, thinking them rigid, while they will pass as the passing of clouds  (Al-Naml, 27: 88).

 

 

﴿١٣﴾ ﴿١٤﴾  ( 69: 13).

 

 

Then when the Horn is blown with one blast (13) And the earth and the mountains are lifted and leveled with one blow  (14)  (Al-'Haaqa, 69: 13).



The end outcome of the first event of the Last Day is the total destruction for the surface of the Earth and the death of all living beings on it. Only the Face of Allah will stay shining, as stated in Verses 26-27 of Surat Al-Rahman (Chapter 55) and Verse of Surat (Chapter ) of the Holy Quran.


﴿٢٦﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٧﴾   ( 55: 26-27).


Everyone upon the Earth will perish, (26) And there will remain the Face of your Lord, Owner of Majesty and Honor. (27)  (Al-Ra'hman, 55: 26-27).


***


II. RESURRECTION


The second event or phase of the Last Day starts with the second blowing of the trumpet, by the angel Issrafeel, peace be to him, which is followed by the planet-wide earthquake. During this phase, humans come out from the earth, rising from their dead state, which is their resurrection. They spread out on the face of the Earth, waiting for their bodies to be paired with their souls. When this happens, then they will be ready for the third phase of the Last Day, which is reckoning.


10. When the Trumpet is Blown for the second time (Yawma Yunfakhu fis Soor Marratan Ukhra), people are resurrected from their dead state, standing, looking on, and waiting for reckoning. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran 6 times, in 18: 99, 20: 102,  23: 101, 36: 51, 39: 68, and 78: 18.

Both events of Blowing the Trumpet were mentioned in one verse in Surat Al-Zumar (39: 68), which states:

When the Trumpet will be blown, all those who are in the heavens and on Earth will fall dead, except those whom Allah wills (for them to survive). Then, when it will be blown another (time), they will be standing and looking on!

 

 ۖ ٰ  ( 39: 68).

 

And the Trumpet will be blown, and whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth will fall dead except whom Allah wills. Then it will be blown again, and at once they will be standing, looking on  (Al-Zumar, 39: 68).

 

 

ٰ   ( 36: 51).


The Trumpet will be blown, and at once from the graves to their Lord they will hasten  (Ya Seen, 36: 51).


  ( 78: 18).


The Day when the Trumpet is blown, and you will come in waves (crowds)  (Al-Naba, 78: 18). 

 

 

 ۖ   ( 18: 99).


 

And We will leave them that day surging over each other, and (then) the Trumpet will be blown, and We will assemble them in (one) assembly (Al-Kahf, 18: 99).

 

 

 ۚ   ( 20: 102).


The Day the Trumpet will be blown. And We will gather the criminals, that Day, blue (Taha, 20: 102).



  ( 23: 101).


When the Trumpet is blown, no relations between them will exist on that Day, and they will not ask after one another (Al-Mu'minoon, 23: 101).



In Verse 8 of Surat Al-Muddathir (Chapter 74) of the Holy Quran, Al-Soor (the Trumpet) was referred to as Al-Naqoor (the Knocker) and the blowing was referred to as Naqr (Knocking):

 

﴿٨﴾ ٰ ﴿٩﴾ ﴿١٠﴾  ( 74: 8-10).

 

 

And when the knocker is knocked (when the trumpet is blown), (8) That Day will be a difficult day (9) For the disbelievers - not easy. (10)  (Al-Muddathir, 74: 8-10).

 


In Verse 53 of Surat Ya Seen (Chapter 36) of the Holy Quran, the Trumpet blasting sound was referred to as Say'ha (a screaming call):

 

( 36: 53).

 

It will not be but one screaming call (blast of the Trumpet), and at once they are all brought present before Us (Ya Seen, 36: 53). 


***

11. The Day of the Earth Second Trembling Earthquake (Al-Radifah), refers to the Day in which the Earth trembles as a result of the second earthquake, following the second blowing of the Trumpet. This leads to the throwing out of what inside it, including remains of people.


﴿٦ ﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ﴿٩( 79: 1-9).

 

 

On the Day of the (Earth) Trembling (Al-Rajifa) (6) Which will be followed by an equivalent one (Al-Radifa). (7) Hearts, that Day, will tremble, (8) Their eyes humbled. (9) (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 1-9).  

 

 

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢( 99: 1-2).

 

When the earth is shaken with its (final) earthquake (1) And the earth discharges its heavy contents (2)  (Al-Zalzala, 99: 1-2).


***


12. The Day of Rising From the Dead (Yawmul Qiyama) refers to the Day humans come out and rise from their dead state after the second blowing of the Trumpet. It was mentioned in the Holy Quran 140 times, as in 4: 87,  21: 47, 23: 16, and 39: 31.

   ( 23: 16).

 

Then, you will be resurrected on the Day of Rising (Al-Muminoon, 23: 16). 

 

 

ٰ  ۚ ٰ  ۗ   ( 4: 87).

 

 

"Allah - there is no deity except Him. He will surely gather you in the Day of Rising, about which there is no doubt. And who is more truthful than Allah in statement" (Al-Nissa, 4: 87).

 

 

People rise with the same bodies they had during their first life, including their same bones and their same fingertips, as stated in Verses 1-4 of Surat Al-Qiyama (Chapter 75) of the Holy Quran.

 

ٰ

 

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ٰ ٰ ﴿٤( 75: 1-4).

 

 

 In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

 I swear by the Day of Rising (1) And I swear by the reproaching soul (o the certainty of resurrection). (2) Does the human being think that We will not assemble his/her bones? (3) Yes. We are Able (even) to proportion his fingertips. (4)

 

 

People come out of the earth just like plants do, as stated in Verses 17-18 of Surat Noo'h (Chapter 71) of the Holy Quran.

 

*** 


13. The Day of Resurrection (Yawmul Ba'ath) refers to the Day people are resurrected, that is coming out from the dead, by the second blowing of the Trumpet. It was mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, in Al-'Haj (22: 5) and in Al-Room (30: 56 twice).

Allah, praise to Him, explains resurrection in the Holy Quran, in two major ways. The first way is that humans will rise from the earth as plants rise when their seeds are irrigated with water. Even after the decay and the decomposition of the human body, there are still human cells which will never disappear, one of which will be the human seed that will grow to a full body, as mentioned in one of the Prophet's Hadith, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

Some researchers actually identified a part of the human body, whose cells don't change by crushing or even by fire. This is 'Ajb Al-Dhanab or Al-'Us'us, at the tip of the human tail bone, which is referred to by researchers in English as Primitive Streak. It seems that some of its cells will stay as the original cell, or the human seed, from which the human DNA is preserved in Earth until the Day of Resurrection, when the human body will rise from it. [7]


( 22: 5).

  ( 22: 5).


O People, if you should be in doubt about the Resurrection, then [consider that] indeed, We created you from the (earth) soil (Al-'Haj, 22: 5).

 

And you see the earth barren, but when We send down upon it rain, it quivers and swells and grows [something] of every beautiful kind (Al-'Haj, 22: 5).

 

 

ٰ  ۖ ٰ ٰ   ( 30: 56). 

 

 

But those who were given knowledge and faith will say, "You remained the extent of Allah 's decree until the Day of Resurrection, and this is the Day of Resurrection, but you did not used to know."  (Al-Room, 30: 56).


***

14. The Day of Coming Out (Yawmul Khurooj)
refers to the Day people come out of the ground, like plants, after the second blowing of the Trumpet. It was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in Surat Qaf (50: 11 and 50: 42).


 ۚ ٰ  ( 50: 42).



The Day they will hear the blast (of the Trumpet) in truth. That is the Day of Coming Out (from the graves) (Qaf, 50: 42).


﴿١٠﴾  ۖ  ۚ ٰ ﴿١١﴾  ( 50: 10-11).




And lofty palm trees having fruit arranged in layers - (10) As provision for the servants, and We have given life thereby to a dead land. Thus is the Coming Out (Resurrection). (11) (Qaf, 50: 10-11).

 

 

﴿١٧ ﴿١٨﴾  ( 71: 17-18).

 

 

And Allah has caused you to grow from the earth a [progressive] growth. (17) Then He will return you into it and extract you (another) extraction. (18)  (Noo'h, 71: 17-18).




15. The Spread of Emerging Bodies (Al-Nushoor)
refers to the spreading of the emerging human bodies all over the surface of the Earth, after the coming out. It was mentioned twice in the Holy Quran, in Surat Faatir (35: 9) and Surat Al-Mulk (67: 15).


ٰ  ۚ ٰ ( 35: 9).



And it is Allah who sends the winds, and they stir the clouds, and We drive them to a dead land and give life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness. Thus is the spread of the emerging bodies (resurrection) (Faatir, 35: 9).

 

 ۖ ( 67: 15). 

 

 

It is He who made the earth tame for you - so walk among its slopes and eat of His provision - and to Him is the spread of the emerging bodies (resurrection) (Al-Mulk, 67: 15).

 

 

Allah, praise to Him, also explains resurrection in the Holy Quran, in another way, as a command from Him. If He wills anything to be, He just says "Be" and "it is." He gives two related examples, mentioned in Verses 259 and 260 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2) of the Holy Quran:

 

 

ٰ ٰ ٰ ٰ  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ ٰ  ۖ ٰ  ۖ  ۚ ٰ ﴿٢٥٩

 

ٰ ۖ  ۖ ٰ ٰ  ۖ ٰ  ۚ ﴿٢٦٠﴾  ( 2: 259-260).

 

Or (consider such an example) as the one who passed by a township which had fallen into ruin. He said, "How will Allah bring this to life after its death?" So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years; then He revived him. He said, "How long have you remained?" The man said, "I have remained a day or part of a day." He said, "Rather, you have remained one hundred years. Look at your food and your drink; it has not changed with time. And look at your donkey; and We will make you a sign for the people. And look at the bones [of this donkey] - how We raise them and then We cover them with flesh." And when it became clear to him, he said, "I know that Allah is over all things competent." (259)

 

And [mention] when Abraham said, "My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead." [Allah] said, "Have you not believed?" He said, "Yes, but [I ask] only that my heart may be satisfied." [Allah] said, "Take four birds and commit them to yourself. Then [after slaughtering them] put on each hill a portion of them; then call them - they will come [flying] to you in haste. And know that Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise." (260)  (Al-Baqara, 2: 259-260). 


***

16. Pairing Souls With Bodies (Wa Idhan Nufoosu Zuwijat) refers to the time souls come back to be paired with and married to their bodies, which they had during their first life on Earth.

At the moment of death the body stops functioning and the angels capture the human self (nafs), which is referred to as "soul" after that. They keep it in a specific destination until the Day of Resurrection, when it is allowed to return to its resurrected body, in order to be able to to communicate with the Creator during the reckoning. Then, it will be judged for rewards in Paradise or punishment in the Hellfire (for more information, see Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective).

This pairing of souls with their bodies happens simultaneously with the resurrection of the bodies. It is mentioned in Verse 81: 7 and the Hadith recorded in Musnad Ahmed.
[9]

  ( 81: 7). 

And when the souls are paired (married with the bodies) (Al-Takweer, 81: 7). 

 

***

 

 

III. RECKONING

The third main event or phase of the Last Day is reckoning, or holding people accountable for what they did or said during their first life on Earth. It has been mentioned in the Holy Quran with the following nine descriptions, which explain what will happen during this phase of the Last Day.

17. The Day of Reckoning or Accountability (Yawmul 'Hisab)
refers to the Day Allah, praise to Him, holds people accountable to their deeds during their first life on Earth. So, the Day of Reckoning is the day of accountability. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran five times, as Yawmul 'Hisab, in 14: 41, 38: 16, 38: 26, 38: 53, and 40: 27. It is also mentioned twice, as a reference to God's speedy reckoning in that Day, in 3: 199 and 40: 17.

 

ٰ ( 40: 27).

 

And Moussa (Moses) said, "I have sought refuge with my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant who does not believe in the Day of Reckoning." (Ghafir, 40: 27).

 

 

18. The Day of Recompense, Settling Accounts, and Paying off Debts (Yawmud Deen) refers to the Day people are compensated for their good deeds or punished for their bad deeds, which they did during their first life on Earth. It is also the Day accounts are settled among people, as some of them are in debt to others as a result of their wrong doing towards them. Thus, it is the Day of Judgment.

It is mentioned twelve times in the Holy Quran, in 1: 4, 15: 35, 26: 82, 37: 20, 38: 78, 51: 12, 56: 56, 70: 26, 74: 46, 82: 17, 82: 18, and 83: 11.

 

 

﴿١٨﴾  ۖ ﴿١٩( 82: 18-19).

 

Then, what can make you know what is the Day of Recompense? (18) It is the Day when a soul will not possess for another soul [power to do] a thing; and the command, that Day, is [entirely] with Allah. (19) (Al-Infitar, 82: 18-19). 

 

 

19. The Day of the Near (Approaching) Event (Yawmul Aazifa) refers to the close Day of Reckoning, which is feared by people in anticipation of what may happen to them. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran twice, Surat Ghafir (40: 18) and in Surat Al-Najm (53: 57).

 

 

ٰ  ۚ  ۚ ﴿١٧  ۚ ﴿١٨( 40: 17-18).

 

This Day every soul will be recompensed for what it earned. No injustice today! Indeed, Allah is swift in reckoning (account). (17) And warn them,([O Muhammad), of the Day of the Near (approaching) Event, when hearts are at the throats, filled [with distress]. For the wrongdoers there will be no devoted friend and no intercessor [who is] obeyed. (18) (Ghafir, 40:17-18). 



20. The Day of Gathering (Yawmul Jam'a) refers to the Day in which Allah, praise to Him, gathers people for reckoning, after their resurrection. It is mentioned in the Holy Quran twice, in Surat Al-Shoura (42: 7) and Surat Al-Taghabun (64: 9).

 

 

ٰ ٰ  ۚ ( 42: 7).

 

And thus, We have revealed to you an Arabic Quran, so that you may warn the Mother of Villages (Makkah) and those around it, and warn of the Day of Gathering, about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze (Al-Shoura, 42: 7). 

 

 ۖ ٰ  ۗ  ۚ ٰ ( 64: 9).

The Day He will gather you for the Day of Gathering - that is the Day of Exchanging Accusations. And whoever believes in Allah and does good deeds - He will remove from him his misdeeds and admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will live forever. That is the great winning (Al-Taghabun, 64: 9).



21. The Day of Regret (Yawmul 'Hassra) refers to the Day in which people regret any wrong doing during their first life on Earth, as they will be punished for it. They also regret missing the opportunity to do good, when they see the awesome rewards given to good doers. It is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Maryam (19: 39).

 

 

( 19: 39).

 

And warn them, (O Muhammad), of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded; and (yet), they are in (a state of) heedlessness, and they do not believe (Maryam, 19: 39). 



22. The Day of Meeting and Encounter (Yawmut Talaq) refers to the Day people meet with their Creator and His angels and with each other. It is the Day of the Encounter, in which disputes are settled and deeds are judged. It is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Ghafir (40: 15).

 

 

ٰ ﴿١٥﴾  ۖ ٰ  ۚ  ۖ ﴿١٦( 40: 15-16).

 

(He is) the Exalted above (all) degrees, Owner of the Throne; He throws the inspiration of His command upon whom He wills of His worshippers to warn of the Day of Meeting. (15) The Day they come forth nothing from them will be concealed from Allah. To whom belongs (all) sovereignty this Day? To Allah, the One, the Subduer (the Prevailing). (16) (Ghafir, 40: 15-16). 



23. The Day of Calling (Yawut Tanad) refers to the Day angles call groups of people with their imams' names, the Day angels call the people of Paradise, and the Day people of Paradise and the people of the Hellfire call each other, asking about God's promise to each one of them. It is mentioned once in the Holy Quran in Surat Ghafir (40: 32). 

 

 

﴿٣٢﴾  ۗ ﴿٣٣ ( 40: 32-33).

 

And O my people, I fear for you the Day of Calling - (32) The Day you will turn your backs fleeing; there is not for you from Allah any protector. And whoever Allah leaves astray - there is not for him any guide. (33) (Ghafir, 40: 32-33). 

 

 

24. The Day of Exchanging Accusations (Yawut Taghabun) refers to the Day people exchange their accusations of cheating against each other, in front of their Creator. This includes accusations of cheating in conducting their deeds, such as in business transactions, marital relations, or in any type of responsibilities.

 

Then, their Lord judges among them, which leads some people to gain by entering Paradise while others lose by going to the Hellfire on the basis of their deeds. It is also the Day people feel regret for what they brought upon themselves as a result of cheating others during their first life on Earth. It is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Taghabun (64: 9).

 

 ۖ ٰ  ۗ  ۚ ٰ ( 64: 9).

The Day He will gather you for the Day of Gathering - that is the Day of Exchanging Accusations. And whoever believes in Allah and does good deeds - He will remove from him his misdeeds and admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will live forever. That is the great winning (Al-Taghabun, 64: 9). 



25. The Event of Rights (Al'Haaqqa) refers to the Event of giving rewards and punishment on the basis of right and wrong. It is the Event of fulfilling God's promise of giving people what they deserve, on the basis of their deeds during their first life on Earth. It is mentioned three times in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-'Haaqqa (69: 1-3).

 

 

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ﴿٤( 69: 1-4).


The Event of Rights - (1) What is the Event of Rights? (2) And what can make you know what is the Event of Rights? (3) Thamud and 'Aad denied the the Cataclysmic Sound (4) (Al-'Haaqqa (69: 1-4).

 

***

 

Accountability will include even the smallest of deeds

The Day of Reckoning will be about holding people accountable for what they did or said during their first life on Earth, even the smallest of deeds, as stated in Verses 21: 47 and 99: 6-8.

 ۖ  ۗ ٰ   ( 21: 47).

 

﴿٦﴾ ﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨( 99: 6-8).

 

 

"We shall fix the scales of justice on the Day of Resurrection, so that none will be wronged in the least; and even if it were equal to a mustard seed in weight We shall take it (into account). We are sufficient for computation" (Al-Anbiya, 21: 47).

 

That Day, the people will depart separated (into categories) to be shown their deeds. (6) So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it, (7) And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it. (8) (Al-Zalzala, 99: 1-8).

 

***

 

Looking at disputes among people

 

On the Day of Reckoning, Allah, praise to Him, will also look at the disputes among people about what they said or did to each other during their first life on Earth, as stated in Verses 39: 31.

 

   ( 39: 3).

 

Then indeed you, on the Day of Resurrection, before your Lord, will dispute (Al-Zumar, 39: 31).

 

 

Giving Judgment Over Disputes

 

At the end of the Day of Reckoning, Allah, praise to Him, judges between people over what they did and said to each other during their first life on Earth, as stated in Verses 22: 17, 32: 25, and 60: 3.

 

ٰ  ۚ ٰ   ( 22: 17).

 

    ( 32: 25).

 

   ۚ  ۚ ( 60: 3).

 

 

Indeed, those who have believed and those who were Jews and the Sabeans and the Christians and the Magians and those who associated with Allah - Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed Allah is, over all things, Witness (Al-'Haj, 22: 17).

 

Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ (Al-Sajda, 32: 25).

 

will your relatives or your children benefit you; the Day of Resurrection He will judge between you. And Allah, of what you do, is Seeing (Al-Mumta'hina, 60: 3).

 

 

***

 

Showing People their detailed books (records)

 

During the Day of Reckoning, people will be given their records, which include what they did and said during their first life on Earth.

 

 

 

ٰ  ۚ  ۗ ﴿٤٩﴾  ( 18: 49).

 

And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say, "Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?" And they will find what they did present [before them]. And your Lord does injustice to no one. (49) (Al-Kahf, 18: 49).

 

 

 

ٰ  ۚ ٰ ٰ ﴿٢٨ٰ  ۚ ﴿٢٩﴾  ( 45: 28-29).

 

And you will see every nation kneeling [from fear]. Every nation will be called to its record [and told], "Today you will be recompensed for what you used to do. (28) This, Our book (record), speaks about you in truth. Indeed, We were having transcribed whatever you used to do." (29)  (Al-Jathiya, 45: 28-29).

 

***

 

How winners and losers receive their books (records)

 

Winners will receive their books (records) with their right hands, which is a glad tiding for them. However, losers will receive their books (records) with their left hands or behind their backs, which is a sign of their incoming bad fate, as stated in Verses 17: 71, 69: 19, 69: 25, 84: 7-9, and 84: 10-15.

 

   ۖ ٰ ( 17: 71).

 

﴿١٩﴾  ( 69: 19).

 

﴿٢٥﴾  ( 69: 25).

 

﴿٧﴾ ﴿٨﴾ ٰ ﴿٩ ( 84: 7-9).

 

﴿١٠﴾ ﴿١١﴾ ٰ ﴿١٢﴾ ﴿١٣﴾ ﴿١٤﴾ ٰ ﴿١٥﴾  ( 84: 10-15).

 

 

(Mention, O Muhammad), the Day We will call forth every (community of) people by their imam (leader). Then whoever is given his book (record) in his right hand - those will read their records, and injustice will not be done to them, [even] as much as a thread [inside the date seed]  (Al-Issra, 17: 71).

 

So as for he who is given his book (record) in his right hand, he will say, "Here, read my record! (19)  (Al-'Haaqqa, 69: 19).

 

But as for he who is given his book (record) in his left hand, he will say, "Oh, I wish I had not been given my record (25)  (Al-'Haaqqa, 69: 25).

 

Then as for he who is given his book (record) in his right hand, (7) He will be judged with an easy account (8) And return to his people in happiness. (9)  (Al-Inshiqaq, 84: 7-9).

 

But as for he who is given his book (record) behind his back, (10) He will cry out for destruction (11) And [enter to] burn in a Blaze. (12) Indeed, he had [once] been among his people in happiness; (13) Indeed, he had thought he would never return [to Allah]. (14)  (Al-Inshiqaq, 84: 10-15).

 

*** 

 

Undisputable Evidence

 

People will also be shown the evidence that they cannot dispute. This includes testimonies from their own tongues, hands, and legs about what they said, did, and walked to during their first life on Earth, as explained in Verses 24: 24(which spoke in their first life) and 36: 65.

 

 

﴿٢٤﴾ ﴿٢٥﴾  ( 24: 24).

 

  ٰ ( 36: 65).

 

 

On a Day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will bear witness against them as to what they used to do (Al-Noor, 24: 24).

 

That Day, We will seal over their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their feet will testify about what they used to earn (Ya Seen, 36: 65).

 

***

 

The Day of Reckoning is The Day of Arithmetic

 

The third main event of the Last Day is Yawmul 'Hisab, which was translated above as "The Day of Reckoning and Accountability." However, there is another more direct meaning for Yawmul 'Hisab, which is the Day of Arithmetic, as the word  'Hisab means arithmetic in Arabic.

 

Arithmetic in its core is about the four counting operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. So is the Day of Reckoning.

 

On that Day, rewards will be added to the accounts of some people and subtracted from others. Some people will have their rewards multiplied while others will have them divided by others.

 

Good-doing believers will have rewards added to their accounts for every act or word of goodness they did or said, in obedience to God, and in observance to His commands about being good to themselves and to others, in their families, their communities, and the world. Moreover, Allah, praise to Him, mentioned that the good acts and words maybe multiplied in rewards to seven times or even seven-hundred times, as mentioned in Verse 2: 261.

 

Those who cause harm to others, on all levels (family, work, community, and the world), will have the rewards for their good deeds subtracted from their accounts and given to their victims as individuals, or divided among the victims if they are multiple.

 

Needless to say that evil-doer tyrant nonbelievers in all levels will receive their deserved punishment of being everlasting in the Hellfire, for the harm they did to innocent people.

 

The Holy Quran is full of verses about the promised rewards for the good-doers and the promised punishment for the wrong-doers, oppressors, and tyrants. Here are some of these verses:

 

 

 ۗ  ۗ ﴿٢٦١

 

 ۙ ﴿٢٦٢

 

 ۗ ﴿٢٦٣﴾  ( 2: 261-263).

 

 

 The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like a seed (a grain) which grows seven spikes; in each spike is a hundred grains. And Allah multiplies [His reward] for whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing. (261)

 

Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah and then do not follow up what they have spent with reminders [of it] or [other] injury will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve. (262)

 

Kind speech and forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury. And Allah is Free of need and Forbearing. (263)  (Al-Baqara, 2: 261-263).

 

 

 ۖ   ( 4: 4).

 

   ۖ ٰ   ( 6: 160).

 

ٰ   ( 13: 22).

 

﴿٨٩﴾ ﴿٩٠﴾  ( 27: 89-90).

 

ٰ ﴿٥٤ ﴿٥٥﴾  ( 28: 54-55).

 

 ۖ ﴿٨٤﴾  ( 28: 84).

 

ٰ  ۗ ٰ ۗ  ۚ ﴿٢٣﴾   ( 42: 23).

 

 

Indeed, Allah does not do injustice, (even) as much as an atom's weight; while if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward (Al-Nissa, 4: 4).

 

Whoever comes (on the Day of Reckoning) with a good deed will have ten times (of rewards) the like thereof, and whoever comes with an evil deed will not be recompensed except the like thereof; and they will not be wronged (Al-Ana'am, 6: 160).

 

And those who are patient, seeking the countenance of their Lord, and establish prayer and spend from what We have provided for them secretly and publicly and prevent evil with good - those will have the good consequence of [this] home (Al-Ra'ad, 13: 22).

 

Whoever comes (on the Day of Reckoning) with a good deed will have better than it, and they, from the terror of that Day, will be safe. (89) And whoever comes with an evil deed - their faces will be overturned into the Fire, [and it will be said], "Are you recompensed except for what you used to do?" (90)  (Al-Naml, 27: 89-90).

 

Those will be given their reward twice for what they patiently endured and (because) they avert evil through good, and from what We have provided them they spend. (54) And when they hear ill speech, they turn away from it and say, "For us are our deeds, and for you are your deeds. Peace will be upon you; we seek not the ignorant." (55)  (Al-Qasas, 28: 54-55).

 

Whoever comes (on the Day of Reckoning) with a good deed will have better than it (in rewards); and whoever comes with an evil deed - then those who did evil deeds will not be recompensed except [as much as] what they used to do  (Al-Qasas, 28: 84).

 

It is that of which Allah gives good tidings to His servants who believe and do righteous deeds. Say, [O Muhammad], "I do not ask you for this message any payment [but] only good will through kinship." And whoever commits a good deed - We will increase for him good therein. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Appreciative (Al-Shoura, 42: 23). 

 

***

 

The Penniless in the Day of Reckoning

 

In a famous Hadith, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, mentioned that even some of the Muslims will be thrown into the Hill fire for their sins, particularly for harming others and transgressing on them. The victims will be given from his promised rewards for his good deeds until he/she becomes penniless, having nothing to get him away from punishment. [8]

 

The Hadith text:

 

( - 2581 ) : : - - : :

 

"

 

: .

 

: .

 

.

 

.

 

."

 

 

Imam Muslim recorded in his Sahih (Kitab Al-Bir, number 2581) that Qutayba Bin Sa'id and Ali Bin 'Hijr told him that Isma'il Bin Ja'afar told them, that his father heard the Companion Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, saying that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said (to his companions):

 

Do you know who is the penniless?

 

They said: The penniless among us is the one who has no money and no property.

 

He said: The penniless is the one from my Community (a Muslim) who comes in the Day of Rising (Reckoning) with (his/her) prayer, fasting, and charity (which were performed as required during his/her first life on Earth).

 

(However, his/her record would show that) he/she insulted this (person), libeled that, ate the money (financially cheated or stole) of this, shed the blood of, or beat that. 

 

These (victims) will be given credits from his/her good deeds.

 

If his/her good-deed credits finish before paying his/her debt (to others), he/she takes from their sin punishment. Thus, he/she will be thrown into the Fire."

 

***

 

 

IV. JUDGMENT

 

The fourth main event or phase of the Last Day is judgment. This means rewarding or punishing people for what they did or said during their first life on Earth. It has been mentioned in the Holy Quran with the following nine descriptions:

 

26. The Day of Judgment (Yawmul Qadha) refers to the Day of judging people according to what they said or did to each other during their first life on Earth. The verb rood / qadha / (to judge) is mentioned in relation to the Last Day at least nine times in the Holy Quran, without associating it with the word "Day," as in Verses 10: 54, 10: 93, 14: 22, 27: 78, 40: 40: 78, 45: 17, 39:69, and 39: 75.

 

 

 

 ۗ  ۖ  ۚ ( 10: 54).

 

And if each soul that wronged had everything on earth, it would offer it in ransom. And they will confide regret when they see the punishment; and they will be judged in justice, and they will not be wronged (Younus, 10: 54).

 

ٰ  ۚ ( 10: 93).

 

And We had certainty settled the Children of Israel in an agreeable settlement and provided them with good things. And they did not differ until [after] knowledge had come to them. Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ (Younus, 10: 93).

 

 ۖ  ۖ  ۖ  ۖ  ۗ  ( 14: 22).

 

And Satan will say when the matter has been judged, "Indeed, Allah had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you, and you responded to me. So do not blame me; but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid, nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I deny your association of me [with Allah] before. Indeed, for the wrongdoers is a painful punishment" (Ibrahim, 14: 22).

 

   ۚ   ( 27: 78).

 

Indeed, your Lord will judge between them by His [wise] judgement. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Knowing  (Al-Naml, 27: 78).

 

 

 ۖ  ۗ   ( 40: 20).

 

 

And Allah judges with truth, while those they invoke besides Him judge not with anything. Indeed, Allah - He is the Hearing, the Seeing (Ghafir, 40: 20).

 

 ۗ  ۚ   ( 40: 78).

 

And We have already sent messengers before you. Among them are those [whose stories] We have related to you, and among them are those [whose stories] We have not related to you. And it was not for any messenger to bring a sign [or verse] except by permission of Allah. So when the command of Allah comes, it will be judged in truth, and the falsifiers will thereupon lose [all] (Ghafir, 40: 78).

 

 ۖ  ۚ ( 45: 17).

 

And We gave them clear proofs of the matter [of religion]. And they did not differ except after knowledge had come to them - out of jealous animosity between themselves. Indeed, your Lord will judge among them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ (Al-Jathiya, 45: 17).

 

( 39: 69).

 

And the Earth will shine with theLight of its Lord, and the record [of deeds] will be placed, and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought, and it will be judged between them in truth, and they will not be wronged (Al-Zumar, 39: 69).

 

 

 ۖ ( 39: 75).

 

 

And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne, exalting [Allah] with praise of their Lord. And it will be judged between them in truth, and it will be said, "[All] praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds." (Al-Zumar, 39: 75).

 

 

27. The Day of the Promised Punishment (Yawmul Wa'eed) refers to the Day in which Allah, praise to Him, fulfills His promise to judge nonbelievers and transgressors who did not heed His warnings and His promised punishment.

 

It was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, as Yawmul Wa'eed, in Verse 20 of Surat Qaf (Chapter 50) of the Holy Quran, and four times as a Promise only, without associating it with the word "Day," in 14: 14, 20: 113, 50: 28, and 50: 45. 

 

 ۚ ٰ ( 50: 20).

 

 ۚ ٰ ( 14: 14).

 

ٰ ( 20: 113).

 

( 50: 28).

 

 ۖ  ۖ ( 50: 45).  

 

And the Trumpet will be blown. That is the Day of the Promised Punishment (Qaf, 50: 20).

 

And We will surely (enable you to) dwell in the land after them. That is for he who fears My position and fears (My) promised punishment (Ibrahim, 14: 14).

 

And thus We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an and have included therein the promised punishment that perhaps they will avoid [sin] or it would cause them remembrance (Taha, 20: 113).

 

[Allah] will say, "Do not dispute before Me, because I had already preceded to you with the promised punishment (Qaf, 50: 28).

 

We are most knowing of what they say, and you are not over them a tyrant. But remind by the Qur'an whoever fears a promised punishment (Qaf, 50: 45). 

 


28. The Promised Day (Al-Yawmul Maw'ood) refers to the Last Day, in which Allah, praise to Him, promised to resurrect people from the dead and judge them on the basis of their deeds during their first life on Earth. It is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Burooj (85: 2).

 

 

( 85: 2).

 

And (by) the Promised Day (Al-Borouj, 85: 2).

 

 

29. The True Promise (Al-Wa'dul 'Haq) refers to the sure occurrence of the Last Day, in which Allah, praise to Him, promised to resurrect people from the dead and judge them on the basis of their deeds during their first life on Earth. It is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Naba (21: 97).

 

 

ٰ   ( 21: 97).

 

 

And (when) the True Promise has approached; then suddenly the eyes of those who disbelieved will be staring (in horror, while they say), "O woe to us; we

had been unmindful of this; rather, we were oppressors (wrongdoers)" (Al-Anbiya, 21: 97-103).  

 

 

30. The Event that Touches All People (Al-Ghashiya) refers to the final event or phase of the Last Day, in which people will be rewarded by an everlasting pleasant life in Paradise or punished in the Hellfire, according to what they did or said during their first life on Earth. The event is mentioned and explained in verses1-16 of Surat Al-Ghashiya (Chapter 88) of the Holy Quran.

 

 ( 88: 1).

 

Has the report of the Event that Touches All People reached you? (Al-Ghashiya, 88: 1).

 

 

31. The Day of Separation and Sorting Out (Yawmul Fasl) refers to the separation  between believers and nonbelievers in the period of waiting for judgment (Al-Ma'hshar). It is also the Day Allah, praise to Him, judges among people, according to their deeds. It is the Day of sorting out people of Paradise and people of the Hellfire. It is mentioned 6 times in the Holy Quran, in Al-Saafat (37: 21), Al-Dukhan (44: 40), Al-Mursalat (77: 13, 14, 38), and Al-Naba (78: 17).  

 

 

ٰ ﴿٢١﴾ ﴿٢٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٣﴾  ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾  ( 27: 21-24).

 

 

(They will be told), "This is the Day of Separation which you used to deny." (21) [The angels will be ordered], "Gather those who committed wrong, their kinds, and what they used to worship (22) Other than Allah, and guide them to the path of Hellfire (23) And stop them; indeed, they are to be questioned." (24)  (Al-Safaat, 27: 21-24). 

 

 

32. The Day of the Greatest Horror (Al-Faza'u Al-Akbar) is a reference to what will happen to the condemned when they are thrown in the Hellfire. It was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Anbiya (21: 103). Verses 21: 97-103 describe how the nonbelievers will experience that Greatest Horror while the believers will be saved from it.

 

 

ٰ ﴿٩٧

﴿٩٨

ٰ  ۖ ﴿٩٩

﴿١٠٠

ٰ ٰ ﴿١٠١

 ۖ ﴿١٠٢

ٰ ﴿١٠٣( 21: 97-103).

 

 

And (when) the True Promise has approached; then suddenly the eyes of those who disbelieved will be staring (in horror, while they say), "O woe to us; we

had been unmindful of this; rather, we were oppressors (wrongdoers)." (97)

 

Indeed, you (disbelievers) and what you worship other than Allah are the firewood of Hell. You will be coming to (enter) it. (98)

 

Had these (false deities) been (actual) gods, they would not have come to it, but all are eternal therein. (99)

 

For them therein is heavy sighing, and they therein will not hear. (100)

 

Indeed, those for whom the best (pormised reward) has preceded from Us - they are from it far removed. (101)  

 

They will not hear its sound, while they are, in that which their souls desire, abiding eternally. (102)

 

They will not be grieved by the Greatest Horror, and the angels will meet them, (saying), "This is your Day which you have been promised" - (103)  (Al-Anbiya, 21: 97-103). 



33. The Greatest Calamity (At-Tamatul Kubra) refers to the greatest loss for the losers, who will go to the Hellfire as a result of their bad deeds during their first life on Earth. They will feel their greatest loss more when they see believers winning by entering Paradise, as a result of their good deeds during their first life on Earth. It is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Al-Naazi'at (79: 34).

 

 

ٰ ﴿٣٤

ٰ ﴿٣٥

ٰ ﴿٣٦

ٰ ﴿٣٧

﴿٣٨

ٰ ﴿٣٩

ٰ ﴿٤٠

ٰ ﴿٤١( 79: 34).

 

But when there comes the Greatest Calamity - (34)

 

The Day when man will remember that for which he strove, (35) And Hellfire will be exposed for [all] those who see - (36)

 

So as for he who transgressed (37)

 

And preferred the life of the world, (38)

 

Then indeed, Hellfire will be [his] refuge. (39)

 

But as for he who feared the position of his Lord and prevented the soul from [unlawful] inclination, (40) Then indeed, Paradise will be [his] refuge. (41) )Al-Naazi'at, 79: 34).


 

34. The Day of Eternity (Yawmul Khulood) refers to the Day in which the winning believers are rewarded by an everlasting life in Paradise. It is also the Day the disbelievers are punished into an everlasting life in the Hellfire, as described in Verses 29-35 of Surat Qaf (Chapter 50). "Yawmul Khulood" is mentioned once in the Holy Quran, in Surat Qaf (50: 34). [10]

 

 

﴿٢٩

﴿٣٠

﴿٣١

ٰ ﴿٣٢

ٰ ﴿٣٣

 ۖ ٰ ﴿٣٤

﴿٣٥( 50: 29-35).

 

 

The word will not be changed with Me, and never will I be unjust to the servants." (29)

 

On the Day We will say to Hell, "Have you been filled?" and it will say, "Are there some more," (30)

 

And Paradise will be brought near to the righteous, not far, (31)

 

(It will be said), "This is what you were promised - for every returner [to Allah] and keeper [of His covenant] (32)

 

Who feared the Most Merciful unseen and came with a heart returning [in repentance]. (33)

 

Enter it in peace. This is the Day of Eternity." (34)

 

They will have whatever they wish therein, and with Us is more. (35)  (Qaf, 50: 29-35). 

 

 

***

 

Judgment to Paradise or to the Hellfire

 

The Last Day ends with God's judgment for the righteous believers to lead a happy and everlasting life in Paradise and with His judgment against the tyrants, oppressors, and non-believers who shedded blood and corrupted their societies and the world during their first life on Earth, as stated in the following three examples, from Surat Al-Zumar (39), Surat Qaf (50), and Surat Al-Ghashiya (88) of the Holy Quran.

 

 

ٰ

 

﴿٦٩

 

﴿٧٠

 

ٰ  ۖ ٰ ٰ ۚ ٰ ٰ ﴿٧١

 

 ۖ ﴿٧٢

 

 ۖ ٰ ﴿٧٣

 

 ۖ ﴿٧٤

 

 ۖ ( 39: 69-75).

 

 

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

And the Earth will shine with theLight of its Lord, and the record [of deeds] will be placed, and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought, and it will be judged between them in truth, and they will not be wronged. (69)

 

And every soul will be fully compensated [for] what it did; and He is most knowing of what they do. (70)

 

And those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in groups until, when they reach it, its gates are opened and its keepers will say, "Did there not come to you messengers from yourselves, reciting to you the verses of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?" They will say, "Yes, but the word of punishment has come into effect upon the disbelievers. (71)

 

 [To them] it will be said, "Enter the gates of Hell to abide eternally therein, and wretched is the residence of the arrogant." (72)

 

But those who feared their Lord will be driven to Paradise in groups until, when they reach it while its gates have been opened and its keepers say, "Peace be upon you; you have become pure; so enter it to abide eternally therein," [they will enter]. (73)

 

And they will say, "Praise to Allah, who has fulfilled for us His promise and made us inherit the earth [so] we may settle in Paradise wherever we will. And excellent is the reward of [righteous] workers." (74

 

And you will see the angels surrounding the Throne, exalting [Allah] with praise of their Lord. And it will be judged between them in truth, and it will be said, "[All] praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds." (Al-Zumar, 39: 69-75).

 

***

 

ٰ

 

 ۖ ﴿١٦﴾ ﴿١٧﴾ ﴿١٨﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿١٩

 

 ۚ ٰ ﴿٢٠﴾ ﴿٢١﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٣﴾ ﴿٢٤﴾ ﴿٢٥﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٦﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٧﴾ ﴿٢٨﴾ ﴿٢٩﴾ ﴿٣٠

 

﴿٣١﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٣﴾  ۖ ٰ ﴿٣٤﴾ ﴿٣٥﴾  ( 50: 16-35).

 

 

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

And We have already created man and know what his soul whispers to him, and We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein (16) When the two receivers receive, seated on the right and on the left. (17) Man does not utter any word except that with him is an observer prepared [to record]. (18) And the intoxication of death will bring the truth; that is what you were trying to avoid. (19)

 

And the Horn will be blown. That is the Day of [carrying out] the threat. (20) And every soul will come, with it a driver and a witness. (21) [It will be said], "You were certainly in unmindfulness of this, and We have removed from you your cover, so your sight, this Day, is sharp." (22) And his companion, [the angel], will say, "This [record] is what is with me, prepared." (23) [Allah will say], "Throw into Hell every obstinate disbeliever, (24) Preventer of good, aggressor, and doubter, (25) Who made [as equal] with Allah another deity; then throw him into the severe punishment." (26) His [devil] companion will say, "Our Lord, I did not make him transgress, but he [himself] was in extreme error." (27) [Allah] will say, "Do not dispute before Me, while I had already presented to you the warning. (28) The word will not be changed with Me, and never will I be unjust to the servants." (29) On the Day We will say to Hell, "Have you been filled?" and it will say, "Are there some more," (30)

 

And Paradise will be brought near to the righteous, not far, (31) [It will be said], "This is what you were promised - for every returner [to Allah] and keeper [of His covenant] (32) Who feared the Most Merciful unseen and came with a heart returning [in repentance]. (33) Enter it in peace. This is the Day of Eternity." (34) They will have whatever they wish therein, and with Us is more. (35)  (Qaf, 50: 16-35).

 

*** 

 

ٰ

 

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٤﴾ ٰ ﴿٥﴾ ﴿٦﴾ ﴿٧

 

﴿٨﴾ ﴿٩﴾ ﴿١٠﴾ ﴿١١﴾ ﴿١٢﴾ ﴿١٣﴾ ﴿١٤﴾ ﴿١٥﴾ ﴿١٦﴾  ( 88: 1).

 

 

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

Has the report of the Event that Touches All People reached you? (1) (Some) faces, that Day, will be humbled, (2) Working (hard) and exhausted. (3) They will (enter to) burn in an intensely hot Fire. (4) They will be given drink from a boiling spring. (5) For them there will be no food except from a poisonous, thorny plant (6) Which neither nourishes nor avails against hunger. (7)

 

(Other) faces, that Day, will show pleasure. (8) With their effort (they are) satisfied (9) In an elevated garden, (10) Wherein they will hear no unsuitable speech. (11) Within it is a flowing spring. (12) Within it are couches raised high (13) And cups put in place (14) And cushions lined up (15) And carpets spread around. (16)  (Al-Ghashiya, 88: 1-16).

 

***

 

Intercession (Ash Shafa'ah)

 

Intercession  refers to the time of the intercessions, which will happen after judgment, when the Messenger of Allah Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him intercedes, asking Allah, praise to Him, to forgive his followers and all humans. The angels and Jibril, peace to them, as well as other Messengers of Allah will also be allowed to intercede on behalf of the believers. Righteous family members may be allowed to intercede for one-another, as stated in the Holy Quran and the Hadith.    

 

 

   ۚ  ( 2: 255).

 

 ۚ  ۚ ( 7: 53).

 

ٰ   ( 19: 87).

 

ٰ   ( 20: 109).

 

ٰ  ۗ  ۚ ﴿٢٦﴾ ﴿٢٧ ٰ ﴿٢٨﴾  ( 21: 26-28).

 

 ۚ  ( 34: 23).

 

Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? (Al-Baqara, 2: 255).

 

Do they await except its result? The Day its result comes those who had ignored it before will say, "The messengers of our Lord had come with the truth, so are there [now] any intercessors to intercede for us or could we be sent back to do other than we used to do?" They will have lost themselves, and lost from them is what they used to invent (Al-A'araf, 7: 53).

 

None will have (power of) intercession except he who had taken from the Most Merciful a covenant (Maryam, 19: 87).

 

That Day, no intercession will benefit except [that of] one to whom the Most Merciful has given permission and has accepted his word  (Taha, 20: 109).

 

And they say, "The Beneficent has taken a son." Exalted is He! Rather, they (the angels) are honorable worshippers. (26) They cannot precede Him in word, and they act by His command. (27) He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they cannot intercede except on behalf of whom He approves. And they, from fear of Him, are apprehensive. (28) (Al-Anbiya, 21: 26-28).

 

And intercession does not benefit with Him except for one whom He permits (Saba', 34: 23).

 

***

 

 

In Ibn Katheer's interpretation of Verse 23 of Surat Saba' (Chapter 34) of the Holy Quran, he mentions a Hadith, which is recorded in both books of Bukhari and Muslim. The Hadith mentions that when the Messenger of Allah Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him, will be granted the praised status he has been promised, he will prostrate in supplication to his Creator. Then, Allah praise to Him, will praise His Messenger and tell him to lift his head up, to speak and to ask. He will be heard and given what he asks for, which is the intercession for mercy on people. 

 

 

" ."

 

That's why the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, asked Muslims to keep asking Allah, praise to Him, to grant his Messenger that praised status, as we know from the following famous Hadith:

 

 

 

"

 

" ."

( : 589 ) 

 

"My intercession will be given to whoever hears the call for prayer and supplicates saying: O, Lord! By this call for prayer, give Muhammed the means and the virtue and grant him the praised status you promised." (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Supplication 589).

 

***

 

Coming to the Fire and the Path to Paradise (Al-Wurood Was Sirat) 

 

 

Verses 71-72 of Surat Maryam (Chapter 19) of the Holy Quran tell us that everybody will come to the Fire. However, the righteous believer will be saved from it. The Hadith explains that people will pass by the Fire in their way to paradise with speed to match their deeds. Some of them pass the path or bridge (As-Sirat) over with the lightening speed. Others with the speed of wind, bird, horse, camel, running or slower. The wrong doers may fall into it to be punished for their sins, then they will be allowed to enter Paradise if they were believers. The tyrant oppressors who reject faith in Allah will be everlasting in the Hellfire. 

 

 

 ۚ ٰ ﴿٧١ ﴿٧٢﴾  ( 19: 71-72).

 

﴿٢٢﴾ ٰ ﴿٢٣﴾  ( 37: 23).

 

 

And none among you is exempt from coming to it (the Fire). This is upon your Lord an inevitability decreed. (71) Then We will save those who feared Allah and leave the wrongdoers within it, on their knees. (72)  (Maryam, 19: 71-72).

 

"Gather those who committed wrong, their kinds, and what they used to worship (22) Other than Allah, and guide them to the path of the Hellfire (23)  (Al-Saffat, 37: 23).

 

 

: ." .

 

***

 

Description of Paradise and the Hellfire

 

 

ٰ

 

﴿١﴾ ﴿٢﴾ ﴿٣﴾ ٰ ﴿٤﴾ ٰ ﴿٥﴾ ﴿٦﴾ ﴿٧

 

﴿٨﴾ ﴿٩﴾ ﴿١٠﴾ ﴿١١﴾ ﴿١٢﴾ ﴿١٣﴾ ﴿١٤﴾ ﴿١٥﴾ ﴿١٦﴾  ( 88: 1-16).

 

Has there reached you the report of the Event that Touches All People ? (1) (Some) faces, that Day, will be humbled, (2) Working [hard] and exhausted. (3) They will [enter to] burn in an intensely hot Fire. (4) They will be given drink from a boiling spring. (5) For them there will be no food except from a poisonous, thorny plant (6) Which neither nourishes nor avails against hunger. (7)

 

(Other) faces, that Day, will show pleasure. (8) With their effort [they are] satisfied (9) In an elevated garden, (10) Wherein they will hear no unsuitable speech. (11) Within it is a flowing spring. (12) Within it are couches raised high (13) And cups put in place (14) And cushions lined up (15) And carpets spread around. (16)  (Al-Ghashiya, 88: 1-16).

 

 

﴿٢١﴾ ﴿٢٢﴾ ﴿٢٣﴾ ﴿٢٤﴾ ﴿٢٥﴾ ﴿٢٦﴾ ﴿٢٧﴾ ﴿٢٨﴾ ﴿٢٩﴾ ﴿٣٠

 

﴿٣١﴾ ﴿٣٢﴾ ﴿٣٣﴾ ﴿٣٤﴾ ﴿٣٥﴾ ﴿٣٦﴾  ( 78: 21-36).

 

 

Indeed, Hell has been lying in wait (21) For the transgressors, a place of return, (22) In which they will remain for ages [unending]. (23) They will not taste therein [any] coolness or drink (24) Except scalding water and [foul] purulence - (25) An appropriate recompense. (26) Indeed, they were not expecting an account (27) And denied Our verses with [emphatic] denial. (28) But all things We have enumerated in writing. (29) "So taste [the penalty], and never will We increase you except in torment." (30)

 

Indeed, for the righteous is attainment - (31) Gardens and grapevines (32) And full-breasted [companions] of equal age (33) And a full cup. (34) No ill speech will they hear therein or any falsehood - (35) [As] reward from your Lord, [a generous] gift [made due by] account, (36)  (Al-Naba', 78: 21-36).

 

 

- - - - :

 

" : ." ( )

 

 

The Companion Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:

 

"Allah said: I have prepared for my righteous worshippers what no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, and no human mind has ever thought about." (narrated by Al-Bukhari).

 

 

***

 

CONCLUSION

 

The Last Day, which includes four major events. These are the Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment. Belief in the Last Day is the fifth manifestation of the second level of faith, Iman, following the belief in Allah, His Angels, His Messages to humanity , and His Messengers.

 

This belief in the Last Day is a major component of the Islamic religion, as it emphasizes accountability for a person's actions during his/her first life on earth and the reward or punishment that follows in the hereafter.

 

Allah, praise to Him, who created human beings, wanted them to lead a happy life on Earth, by obeying His commands, all of which are for their good. He does not want them to harm themselves or others. Therefore, He has established this system of sanctions to reward those who are good and punish the aggressors.

 

It is sad that there are people who do not seriously believe in the Last Day, in which they will stand before their Creator for reckoning and judgment. Had they believed that they would be held responsible for their evil actions in this life, humans would not have suffered, individually and collectively as a result of all these wars, corruption, and oppression.  

 

 

================================================

 

Notes:

 

[1] The three renowned early Islamic scholars, known for their interpretations of the Holy Quran, are Al-Tabari (Died in 310 Hijria about 923 Gregorian), Al-Qurtubi (Died in 671 Hijria, about 1272 Gregorian), and Ibn (Bin) Katheer (Died in 774 Hijria, about 1372 Gregorian). They employ their knowledge of Arabic as well as their comprehensive knowledge of the Holy Quran, using verses in one context to explain other verses in other contexts. Their most important contribution, though, is including explanations from the Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, and from his companions, may Allah be pleased with them. The complete works of these great Islamic scholars, who interpreted the Holy Quran in different centuries are published on the official website of the Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs, at: http://quran.al-islam.com/  

 

A brief background about their birth, death, and interpretation books, from http://islamstory.com/ar/- :

 

Al-Tabari, Muhammed Bin Jareer was born in Tabarstan in 224 H / 839 G and died in Baghdad in 310 H / 923 G. His famous interpretation of the Holy Quran is titled in Arabic as:

 

" ."

 

Al-Qurtubi, Abu Abdullah Muhammed Bin Ahmed Bin Abi Bakr was born in Qutuba, Andalusia, in about 600-610 H and died in South Egypt in 671 H / 1272 G. His famous interpretation of the Holy Quran is titled in Arabic as:

 

" ."

 

Ibn Katheer, Isma'il Bin Omar was born in Busra Ash-Sham, in 701 H / 1301 G and died in Damascus, in 774 H / 1373 G. His famous interpretation of the Holy Quran is titled in Arabic as:

 

" ."

 

 

Underlined letters in the Quran transliteration

 

Some Arabic letters and sounds have no counterparts in the English alphabet and the English phonetic transcription. There are nine Arabic sounds which have no equivalence in the English alphabet. These are (    ). Some translators underline the closest English letters to these Arabic letters, in order to tell readers that these are pronounced differently in Arabic. The closest sounds expressing the Arabic letters in parentheses, from right to left, are ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ). However, underlining them as ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ) conveys the message that these are different from the English sounds expressed by the letters of the English alphabet.

 

The two Arabic letters and sounds of Tha ( ) and Dhal (   ), expressed by the two English letters "th" at the beginning of the English words "three" and "that," are transliterated  as / th / and / th /, respectively.

 

This author uses this same method of underlining these letters, with the exception of the two Arabic letters expressed by the / h / and / a / sounds. Instead of underlining them, he adds an apostrophe before the letter to become / 'h / and / 'a / respectively. Using an apostrophe instead of underling a letter is for practical reasons only. First, these two letters are more frequently used than the other letters in the list. Second, it is easier to use the apostrophe on keyboards than adding underlining after writing.

 

As an example, an apostrophe is used before the English letter / a / to express the eighteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ayn /, as in the case of translating the Good Name of God, Al-'Azeez, the tenth on the list.

 

An apostrophe is also used before the English letter / h / to express the sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ha /, as in the case of translating the Good Name of God, Al-A'had,  

The above usage of an apostrophe to help express the Arabic sound / 'a / may not be enough if the sound occurs at the end of a word, such as in the case of the Good Name of God, number 30, "Al-Samee'u." This Good Name of God is pronounced as "Al-Samee' " without conjugation. However, because the sound / 'a / occurs at the end of the word, the pronunciation may become distorted as / as-samee'a / instead of / as-samee ' /. As a solution, this author is using the conjugated form of the noun as a subject to become / as-samee'u /, the closest to the Arabic pronunciation. 

 

[2] There are 34 names in the Holy Quran referring to the events that will happen during the Last Day, 20 of these names are preceded by the word "Day" (Yawm), and 5 of them are followed by it. There are also many other names describing the events of that Day, without being qualified with the word "Day" (Yawm). Only four of them are mentioned here, as follows:

 

The 22 names, which are preceded by the word "Day" (Yawm):

 

.

The 6 names, which are followed by the word "Day" (Yawm):

 

  .

 

 

The 6 names, which are not associated with the word "Day" (Yawm) before or after it:

 

.

 

 

[3] There are many other names for the Last Day and what will happen in it, which have been deducted by Islamic scholars from the Quran descriptions. These should not be confused with the specific names listed above in this chapter, which are mentioned directly and clearly in the Holy Quran.

 

Here are some of these deducted names and descriptions of the Last Day, which are mentioned in Islam web ( http://fatwa.islamweb.net/fatwa/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=24897 ):

 

 

:

 

.

 

:  .

: .

:   
.

 

 

[4]  In his interpretation of the Verse 8 of Surat Al-Baqara (Chapter 2) of the Holy Quran, Al-Tabari mentioned that Allah, praise to Him, called it the Last Day because it will be the last day with day light, without being followed by night after that. The other two renowned Muslim interpreters of the Holy Quran (Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer) provided the same interpretation.

 

 

 " " ( 2: 8).

 
: { } . : , . : , , , . : , , , , : " " , , .

 

 

[5] The Last Day will not happen until certain prophecies are come to pass. Some of these have already passed, such as the mission of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh, end of slavery, as well as the Beduin Arab goat and sheep herders constructing the highest buildings in the world (Dubai). The remaining major signs (prophecies), which will precede the Hour, include the emergence of the Guided One (Al-Mahdi), the rule of the Fake Messiah (Al-Dajjal), the second coming of 'Eissa (Jesus) the Son of Mary, Yajooj and Majooj (Gog and Maygog), and the Sun rising from the West.

 

The two signs (prophecies) of the Hour, about the end of slavery and the construction of the highest buildings by the Arab herders, were mentioned the Hadith, narrated by Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, and recorded by Muslim. It is also the second of the Forty Nawawi Hadiths. It's published in its entirety at: Three Levels of Faith Islam, Iman, and Ihsan. Here is the part of the Hadith about these two signs:  

 

"He (Jibril) said: Then, tell me about the hour.

 He (the Prophet pbbuh) said: The one questioned about it knows no better than the questioner.

He said: Then, tell me about its signs. 

He (the Prophet pbbuh) said:

That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, and that you will see the barefooted, naked, destitute herdsmen competing in constructing lofty buildings."

 

 

 

: ɿ

: " ."

: ǿ

: " ."

 

 

The remaining signs of the Hour are mentioned in Hadiths collected by Ya'hya Bin Sharafud Deen Al-Nawawi, may Allah reward him for his work, in his Arabic book, "Riyadh Al-Saliheen," which was published by Dar Al-Arabiya, Beirut, Lebanon (No date mentioned). These Hadiths are numbered from 1805 to 1822, pages 443-449.

 

The book was also edited by Mahir Yaseen Al-Fa'hl and published in 1428 / 2007 by Dar Ibn Katheer. It can be accessed online at: https://archive.org/details/waq85745waq. The Hadiths about the signs of the hour of this publication start from number 1808 to number 1823, pages 503-509.

 

 

 

 

[6] The "Last Day" (  ) is mentioned 26 times in the Holy Quran. These are 2: 8, 2: 62, 2: 126, 2: 177, 2: 228, 2: 232, 2: 264, 3: 114, 4: 38, 4: 39, 4: 59, 4: 136, 4: 162, 5: 69, 9: 18, 9: 19, 9: 29, 9: 44, 9: 45, 9: 99, 24: 2,  29: 36,  33: 21,  58: 22, 60: 6,  65: 2.

 

 

[7] 'Adel Al-Sa'adi reviewed research about Ajb Al-Dhanab or Al-'Us'us, the primitive streak, or the coccyx bone, in his attempt to explain the Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, that this part of the body does not perish and stays alive until the Day of Resurrection, when it grows again to a full human being. Here's the Hadith text in Arabic:

 

 

:


(1).


:


: : (2.)

 

 
(1) 14/ 201 5254.
 
(2) 14/ 202 5255.

 

The Companion Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated the following two Hadiths:

 

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing be upon him said:

 

"All of the son (child) of Adam will be eaten by the dirt (of Earth) except Ajb Al-Dhanab, from which he was created, and from which he will be assembled." (1)

 

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessing be upon him also said:

 

"In the human being, there is a bone, which the Earth does not eat at all, from it he/she will be assembled in the Day of Rising."

The Companions said (asked): Which bone is it, O Messenger of Allah?

He said: 'Ajb Al-Dhanab."  (2)

 

Sources of Recording:

 

(1) Sahih Muslim: 14 / 201, Number 5254.

 

(2) Sahih Muslim: 14 / 202, Number 5255.

 

 

'Adel Al-Sa'adi and Osama Abdallah mentioned that the first researcher who paid attention to 'Ajb Al-Dhanab, the primitive streak, or the coccyx bone, was the German scientist Hans Spemann, who described it as the Primary Organizer. He and his associates found that it does not perish by crushing or by boiling, and it will grow when planted in a fetus.  In 1935, Spemann was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the Primary Organizer.


A group of Chinese researchers tried to destroy it chemically by the strongest acids, physically by burning and crushing it, and by exposing it to various kinds of rays but they discovered that it doesn't perish.

 

Finally, the Yemeni researcher, 'Uthman Jilan, tried together with Shaikh Abdul Majid Al-Zindani, to destroy it by burning it with a gas gun for ten minutes. Then, they took it to a researcher in the University of Sana'a, Salih Al-Awlaqi, who found out that it was not affected by burning. 

 

Sources:

 

http://www.answering-christianity.com/coccyx_miracle.htm

 

http://www.jameataleman.org/main/articles.aspx?article_no=1165

 

 

[8] Source of the Hadith about the penniless on the Day of Reckoning is the Scholarly Saudi Society for the Prophetic Sunnah, at:

 

http://www.sunnah.org.sa/sunnah-sciences/variety-scientific-articles/104-2010-07-22-07-22-40/3707-2014-05-05-16-36-28

 

[9] In their interpretation of Verse 7 of Surat Al-Takweer (Chapter 81) of the Holy Quran, Ibn Katheer, Al-Qurtubi, and Al-Tabari, interpreted "And when the souls are paired (married)," as the souls are going to be paired with (married to) their bodies again.

 

Ibn Katheer added that there will be forty years between the two times of blowing the Trumpet, during which the Earth will be irrigated with rain, leading to the resurrection (emergence) of the bodies of people, birds, and animals. Then, souls come back to their bodies, to be paired with or married to them. 

 

" " : " " " " .

 

http://quran.al-islam.com/Page.aspx?pageid=221&BookID=11&Page=1

  

 

The same meaning about souls coming back to their bodies, which they had during their first life on Earth, is also mentioned in several Hadiths. Here is one of them, which is recorded in Musnad Ahmed, as follows: 

 

 

- - 26841 - 425:

 

ǿ

 

:

 

" ."

 

http://hadith.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=237&Words

 

 

[10] The list of the 34 names of the Last Day and their descriptions in Arabic are as follows: 

 

 

34 22 "" 6 "" 6 "" .

 

. ( 3). 

 

. . :

 

:

 

1. . 26 (2: 8).

 

2. . 39 (6: 31) "" (45: 27). .

 

3. . : 6: 73 27: 87 39: 68   50: 20 69: 13.

 

(39: 68).

 

" " ( 39: 68).

 

4. . (69: 4) (101: 1-3).

 

5. . (80: 33).

 

6. . : (56: 1) (69: 15).

 

7. . (73: 14) (79: 1-9).

 

8. . (69: 13) (89: 21).

 

9. . (99: 1).

 

 :

 

10. . : 18: 99 20: 102 23: 101 36: 51  39: 68  78: 18. 

 

(39: 68).

 

" ."

 

11. . (79: 7).

 

12. . 140 :

 

" ٰ  ۚ ٰ  ۗ " ( 4: 87).

 

"  ۖ  ۗ ٰ " ( 21: 47).

 

" " ( 23: 16).

 

" " ( 39: 31).

 

13. . (22: 5)   (30: 56 ).

 

14. .   (50: 11 50: 42).

 

15. . (35: 9) (67: 15).

 

16. 81: 7  

 

 

 

17. . (14: 41) (38: 16 26 53) (40: 27). (3: 199) (40: 17).  

 

18. . . (1: 4) (15: 35) (26: 82) (37: 20) (38: 78) (51: 12) (56: 56) (70: 26) (74: 46) (82: 17) (82: 18) (83: 11).

 

19. . : (40: 18) (53: 57).

 

20. .   (42: 7) (64: 9).

 

21. .   (19: 39).

 

22. . (40: 15).

 

23. . (40: 32).

 

24. . (40: 18).

 

25. . (69: 1-3).

 

:

 

26. . "" : 10: 54 10: 93 14: 22 27: 78 40: 40 40: 78 45: 17 39: 69 39: 75.

 

27. . (50: 20) "" (20: 113) (50: 28).

 

28.   . (85: 2).

 

29. . (21: 97).

 

30. . (88: 1-2).

 

31.   . . (37: 21) (44: 40) (77: 13 14 38) (78: 17).

 

32. . ( 21: 103).

 

33. . (79: 34).

 

ٰ ( 21: 97)

 

34. . (50: 34).

 

================================================================================================================================

 

About the Author and the Book:

 

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
 
This work is solely devoted for the sake of Allah, to educate people about Islam, in response to a great demand to know about the final message of God to humanity.
 
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net
.

 

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.
 
May Allah, praise to Him, enlighten the hearts and minds of all who read this book, and guide them to the right path.
 
May Allah, praise to Him, accept this effort, as a contribution to spreading His light among the people of this Earth.

 

 

  ( 61: 8).  

 

 

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8). 

 

 

     

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.

editor@aljazeerah.info