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Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Table of Contents  

I. Introduction: Basic Information   

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction    

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan  

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity    

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an   

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise  

7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?    

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings    

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective    

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an    

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure  

11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith  

12. Performing Islamic Prayers  

13. Giving Zakat, Charity, The Third Islamic Duty  

14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims  

15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar  

16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran    

17. Angels  

18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran     

19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran  

21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran    

22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran   

23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj  

24. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do  

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

2. The La (No) Commands  

3. The Imperative Commands  

***

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings
 

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

Links to Islamic topics 2006

Links to Islamic topics 2005

Links to Islamic topics 2004

Links to Islamic topics, 2003

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 


































































 

Islam:

A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

 3

The Scientific Evidence That God Exists

and the Holy Quran

Is His Message to Humanity 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

Updated on 6th of Shawwal, 1441 - May 29, 2020

***

   

1441 - 29 2020

***

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaitan (Satan)

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

*** 

Introduction *

At the beginning of the 21st Century, many people in the world no longer believe in God. Even some of those who profess such belief are not sure. Others have a distorted belief, which makes them behave in misguided and dangerous ways. In brief, there is a lot of ignorance on this Planet, at this time, about the Creator of life and about His message to humanity, which has been told in the religious Holy Books.

But before addressing the problem of misguided believers, it is more essential to address the question of atheism, or the belief that God does not exist in the first place. This belief has developed as a result of lack of scientific evidence in teaching about God. Many world religions involve illogical myths and weird rituals that belittle the human mind, leading to the disbelief that these myths and rituals are from a Supreme Being, who is supposed to be more intelligent than the human beings He has created, and as a result is worthy of being worshipped by them.  

Another important reason for atheism is that leaders of many religions, including the major ones, put themselves in a collision course with science. This has alienated the most educated and most intelligent people and made them susceptible to atheism, indifference, or at least not taking religion seriously.  

So, how can this problem of Gods existence be resolved?  

To convince the most intelligent beings on this Planet that there is a God and that He does exist, scientific evidence supporting this fact has to be brought to the discussion.  

The Holy Quran (pronounced in two separate syllables Qur - an) is full of such evidence. Actually, the Islamic Holy Book can be broadly divided into two parts. The first involves the scientific evidence that its ultimate author is the Creator of life Himself, in order to convince humans that He exists and that the Holy Quran is His message to humanity.  The second part involves His teachings, the Shari'a, which if followed by humans will lead them to happiness in this life and in the everlasting Hereafter.  

The story of life on Planet Earth, including human life, is told in the Holy Quran in a way that would light up the eyes of scientists if they read it. Its the same story, which is told to students of biology. It leaves no doubt about the fact that life started in a very simple way a long time ago and kept evolving ever since (See Chapter I.4, "Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran").   

The scientific story of creation of life is just one example of how the Holy Quran convinces its readers that no human on this Planet could have authored this Book. Many of the scientific facts revealed became known only in the last century or so. The Messenger of God, Prophet Muhammed (Peace and blessings of God be upon him) was an illiterate man. It was impossible for him or for any other human being more than 1400 years ago to know about such facts.    

This Chapter is divided into three parts. The first includes examples of verses, containing facts just explained or discovered recently by scientists, about the creation of the heavens and the Earth, as well as the existence of intelligent beings, other than humans. The second part includes examples of verses, mentioning facts just explained or discovered recently by scientists, about life on Earth, in relation to the darkness of ocean waters, formation of clouds, plant pairs, and sex of insects. The third part of this Chapter provides information about the numerical miracle in the design of the Holy Quran. This is an emerging research area, which demonstrates, through so many examples, that the letters, words, and chapters of the Holy Quran are designed and arranged according to numerical relationships. As a result, this Book could not have been authored by any human being. Its the Word of God and His Message to humanity.

First, Examples of Verses Containing Scientific Facts, Just Explained or Discovered Recently, About the Creation of the Heavens and the Earth, as Well as the Existence of Intelligent Beings, Other than Humans 

1. Verse 11: 7 tells us that God's Throne had been on water before He created the heavens and the Earth.

 ( 11: 7).

And it is He who created the heavens and the Earth in six days - and His Throne had been upon water (Hood, 11: 7). 

This means that water preceded other elements, and consequently the formation of our solar system, as scientists concluded in their most recent research, in 2014. They found that some of the water we have is older in age than the Earth age, which is estimated at about 4.6 billion years. It is even older than the Sun. This is a confirmation to this verse, and consequently a piece of  evidence that the Holy Quran is the Word of God.

In interpreting this verse, Al-Tabari mentioned a 'Hadith in which the Messenger of God was asked, "Where had our Lord been before He created the heavens and the Earth. He said that "He was in clouds, and there was air above and below Him. Then, He created His Throne on Water." The three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer), also mentioned an explanation by Ibn 'Abbas, who said, "The water was over the wind." [1]

2. Verse 21: 30 tells us that the heavens and the Earth were a joined entity. Then, Allah splintered them (causing them to scatter in space). The verse also tells us that Allah created every living thing (in them) out of water, which was already there. 

 ۖ  ۖ  ( 21: 30). 

Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the Earth were a joined entity, and We splintered (separated) them and made from water every living thing? Then, will they not believe? (Al-Anbiya, 21: 30). 

At the beginning of the 20th Century, some astrophysicists estimated the age of the universe between 10 and 20 billion years. However, more recent estimates date it back to about 13.8 billion years. This is according to the Big Bang theory, which is agreed upon by most contemporary astrophysicists. Though the theory described the beginning of the universe as a result of a big bang, astrophysicists now agree that it was an event, not necessarily a bang.

This is evidence about the accuracy of the verb "fataqa" used in the verse, which refers to splintering a substance (like ice), causing it to scatter into smaller pieces.

Astrophysicists tried to explain how the event happened, as a result of the interaction between elements, energy, and time, without mentioning the logical existence of God, who caused the event to happen. The evidence that He did, is that He told us about it in this verse, with this accuracy of the description, many centuries before the existence of astrophysics. He is the First, the Originator, the Creator of the Heavens and Earth, the Great, and Most High (See Chapter 16, "Allah, as He described Himself in the Holy Quran"). [2]

3. Verse 51: 47 tells us that Allah built the heaven, which is continuously expanding.

ٱٓ ٰۡ ۡ۬ ( 51: 47).

We built the heaven with (Our) hands, and We are expanding (it) (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 47).

In this verse, Allah (God) is telling us that He built heaven, using the past tense of the verb (built), which means that the act of building was completed in the past. Then, He tells us that He is expanding it, using the present continuous tense of the verb, to indicate that the expansion of heaven is continuously happening.

While the three renowned Islamic scholars pointed to the vastness of heaven, astrophysicists of the 20th Century were very specific about this scientific fact, describing it as "the expanding universe," which is precisely described as such in the Holy Quran. [3]

4. Verse 67: 3 tells us that Allah created seven heavens, as straight layers, one over the other, without a faulty difference between them, whether you look at them once or more than once.

  ٰ ٰ   ٰ ( 67: 3).

(It is Allah) Who created seven heavens, in layers (strata). You do not see in the creation of the Beneficent any inconsistency. So return (your) vision (to the sky), do you see any breaks? (Al-Mulk, 67: 3).

The scientific fact mentioned in this verse, about heavens as parallel layers, was confirmed by many astrophysicists, who argue that there are several parallel universes. The only difference is that they use the word "universe" instead of the word "heaven" mentioned in this verse. [4] 

5. Verse 84: 19 is related in meaning to the above-mentioned Verse 67: 3, particularly in describing heavens as parallel layers, one over the other, but it adds a prophecy about the human space travel, from one layer of heavens to another.

( 84: 19).

You will surely ride (travel) from one layer (of heavens) to another layer (Al-Inshiqaq, 84: 19).

The three renowned Islamic interpreters of the Holy Quran agreed with this meaning, by mentioning the interpretations of Ibn 'Abbas and Al-Shi'bi, who limited space travel from one heaven to another to the Messenger of Allah. Al-Qurtubi added a question, wondering if the Verse was a prophecy about the Prophet's Night Journey (Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj).

In answering Al-Qurtubi's question, it's clear that Surat Al-Inshiqaq (Chapter 84 of the Holy Quran), including verse 19, was a Makkan Chapter, and it was revealed after the Night Journey, which was also described in Surat Al-Najm (Chapter 53). If the Prophet alone was the one intended by this Verse, then the verb used would be in the past tense. However, the verb used in this Verse is in the present tense, which also conveys the future. This means that it is a prophecy about human space travel, in general, from one planet to another, from one solar system to another, and from one galaxy to another. [5]

6. Verse 55: 33 is related to the above-mentioned verse (84: 19), as it contains an invitation, which amounts to a prophecy, for humans and Jinn to attempt space travel.

ۚ ( 55: 33).

O company of Jinn and humans, if you are able to penetrate (pass) through the zones of the heavens and the Earth, then penetrate. You will not penetrate except by power (of science) (Al-Ra'hman, 55: 33).

This prophecy was fulfilled for the Jinn first, as we are told by Verse 72: 8, which tells us that the Jinn have reached heaven but its powerful guards repelled them with burning flames. We take this information from the Holy Quran as a given because we are not qualified yet, as humans at this stage of our knowledge, to investigate it.

( 72: 8).

And we (Jinn) have touched the heaven but found it filled with powerful guards and burning flames (Al-Jin, 72: 8).

Then, this prophecy started to be fulfilled for humans during the second half of the 20th Century (14th Century of Hijra, Islamic Calendar), when the Soviets and Americans started their space travels, followed by Europeans, then Asians afterwards.

For centuries, readers of the Holy Quran, including the three renowned interpreters, could not interpret this Verse as a future possibility of human space travel between heavenly bodies. However, this issue has become a normal bit of news in the media now adays, as space travels occur almost monthly, not only for orbiting Earth and docking to the international space station, but also for the exploration of outer space, other planets, and even going beyond our solar system. [6]

7. Verse 65: 12 tells us that Allah created seven heavens and seven Earth-like planets.

ٰ ( 65: 12).

It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the Earth like of them (seven planets like Earth). (His) command descends among them so you may know that Allah is over all things competent and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge (Al-Talaq, 65: 12).

This Verse means that there are seven heavens inhabited by angels, and that God's commands descend among them. Likewise, there are seven planets like Earth, inhabited by others of God's creatures, and that God's commands also descend among them.

The three renowned Islamic interpreters agreed that there are seven Earth-like planets. Al-Tabari interpreted the Verse, saying: "There is no disagreement about that the heavens are seven, layered one over the other, as evidenced from the 'Hadith of Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj (the Prophet's Night Journey), and other 'Hadiths."

Then,Al-Tabari added that "there are also seven Earth-like planets. The majority of scholars agree that these planets are also layered, one over the other, and that the distance between one Earth-like planet and anther is like the distance between one heaven and another, and that there are God's creatures inhabiting each one of them."

Thus, this Verse is an invitation for researchers to look for these Earth-like planets, discover them, and their intelligent inhabitants. It's thrilling that we are living at a time in which space scientists are actively searching for evidence about the existence of life on other planets, in our solar system, as well as in other solar systems in our galaxy, and even in other galaxies. The most important evidence of life they look for is whether water exists on a planet or not, which is in total agreement with the Holy Quran Verse 21: 30 mentioned above. 

On February 22, 2017, NASA published a report about the discovery of a solar system, which scientists called Trappist-1. It is located in the in the constellation Aquarius, which is about 39.6 light years (about 235 trillion miles) away from our Earth. The report mentioned that there are seven planets the size of our Earth, all orbiting their sun, with a possibility of water on all of them, and the possibility of life on three of them, at least. Though the report is not giving absolute evidence of water or life on these planets, it opens the door for the possibility of discovering that in the future, whether in this group of planets or in others. Thus, this NASA discovery supports the scientific facts mentioned in this Verse. [7]

8. Verse 14: 19 tells us that Allah created the heavens and the Earth with the right proportions.

( 14: 19).

Have you not seen that Allah created the heavens and the Earth with the right proportions? If He wills, He can do away with you and bring a new creation (Ibrahim, 14: 19).

Allah used the Arabic word "haq" to describe how He created the heavens and the Earth. In Arabic dictionaries, "haq" means right, truth, justice, and balance. It is also the opposite of wrong and falsehood. Thus, the meaning of the Verse is that Allah created the heavens and the Earth with the right proportions. This refers to the precision and perfect balance in the relationships between components of the Universe.

In its orbit around the Sun, the Earth occupies an ideal location, which has enabled life to start, continue, and flourish on it. The wonderful diversity of the fauna and flora on this planet is the result of its optimal and balanced relationship with the Sun, the Moon, and other planets of the solar system. In particular, life on Earth flourished as a result of turning around itself, which creates the 24-hour cycle of day and night. It is also a result of its annual orbit around the Sun, which leads to the seasonal changes. Moreover, the different geographical regions have been created in reaction to the differences in the sun light reaching these regions.

Water constitutes 70% of Earth and the human body as well, which is another example of balance and precision between the Earth and its inhabitants. There is also a balance in the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide, both of which are necessary for plants and animals on the planet. Further, there is a balance between the ozone layer and other gases, particularly those resulting from the industrial pollution. If this balance is disturbed, the ozone layer may lose its capability to protect the Earth from the harmful cosmic radiations.

Thus, all these examples refer to the precision and balance in the components of the Universe, and among them, as expressed by the word "haq" (right proportions) mentioned in this Verse. [8]    

9. Verse 79: 30 tells us that the Earth is egg-shaped (not flat, as some humans believed, or even a perfect circular globe), which is a scientific fact, just recently discovered. 

ٰ ( 79: 30).

And the Earth, after that, He made it egg-shaped (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 30).

The scientific fact included in this Verse is specifically mentioned in the verb (da'haha,  ٮٰٓ). Many translators incorrectly translated it as "extended it." The correct translation is that He made it egg-shaped. The evidence for this meaning of the verb is that the noun "da'hya" is used by North African Arabs in reference to an "egg." The author of this book heard it by himself, during his stay in Libya, from 1972 to 1976.

Allah wanted to describe to humans how the Earth looks like, using something they were familiar with at that time, which is the egg of a chicken or a bird. For the later generations of humans, the egg shape is the most accurate description of how the Earth looks like, as it has been discovered recently that the Earth is less than a perfect circular globe. Today, we have wonderful photos of our beautiful blue planet, showing it in a circular shape, taken by astronauts, satellites, space telescopes, and the international space station.

This scientific fact was not known to Arabs before Islam but many Islamic scholars of natural sciences mentioned it in their writings. It's interesting that the three renowned interpreters did not know about the meaning of da'hya as an egg. Otherwise, they would have mentioned that meaning in their interpretations, which usually include as many meanings as possible.  [9]

10. The following verses tell us that the heavens are inhabited by intelligent beings (the angels), who submit to their Lord, Allah, and worship him as do many people on Earth.

  ٰ ( 42: 29).

And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the Earth, and what He has dispersed throughout them of creatures. And He, for gathering them when He wills, is competent (Al-Shoura, 42: 29).

 ۥ ٱٰٲ ٱۡۖ ڪ۬  ۥ ٰ ( 30: 26).

And to Him belongs whoever is in the heavens and the Earth. All are to Him devoutly obedient (Al-Roo, 30: 26).

ۡ ٱ ۡ  ۥۤ ۡ ٱٰٲ ٱۡ ۡ۬ ڪۡ۬ ۡ ۡ ( 3: 83).

So, is it other than the religion of Allah they desire, while to Him have submitted (all) those within the heavens and the Earth, willingly or by compulsion, and to Him they will be returned? (Al-'Imran, 3: 83).

ۡ ٱ  ۥ ٱٰٲ ٱۡ ٱۡ ٰٰٓ۬ ۬ ۡ  ۥ ۡ ٱ ۢ ۡ ( 24: 41).

Do you not see that Allah is exalted by whoever is within the heavens and the Earth and (by) the birds with wings spread (in flight)? Each (of them) has known his prayer and (his) exalting (of Allah), and Allah is Knower (Knowledgeable) of what they do (Al-Noor, 24: 41).

***

The following verses also tell us that there are other intelligent beings, who inhabit what is in between the heavens and the Earth, (the Jinn). Some of these also submit to their Lord, Allah, and worship Him, as many humans do on Earth.

﴿٢٣﴾   ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 26: 23-24).

(The) Pharaoh said, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) (Moussa, Moses) said, "The Lord of the heavens and the Earth and what is in between them, if you should be convinced" (Al-Shoura, 26: 23-24).

( 72: 1).

Say, (O Muhammed), "It has been revealed to me that a group of the Jinn listened and said, 'Indeed, we have heard an amazing Quran" (Al-Jin, 72: 1).

( 72: 8).

And we (Jinn)  have touched (reached) the heaven but found it filled with powerful guards and burning flames (Al-Jin, 72: 8).

  ٰ ( 72: 14).

And among us (Jinn) are Muslims (who submit to Allah), and among us are the unjust. And whoever have become Muslims - those have sought out the right course (Al-Jin, 72: 14).

The above verses tell us that there are intelligent beings in heavens (the angels), who believe in Allah (God) and worship Him. The verses also tell us that there are other intelligent beings, who live in between the heavens and the Earth (the Jinn). Some of them believe in Allah and worship Him but others do not. Thus, these verses attract our attention to the possibility of communication and interaction between us and them in the future, as did happen in the past with Prophet Sulayman (Solomon).

( 27: 17).

And gathered for Sulayman (Solomon) were his soldiers of the Jinn, humans, and birds, and they were (marching) in rows (Al-Naml, 27: 17).

The possibility of communication and interaction with aliens  has increased recently with the advances in human space discovery endeavors, such as the various kinds of telescopes on Earth and in space, and the various devices sent to outer space. There is also a possibility that such intelligent beings may reach us first before we reach them, whether in communication or in actual arrival of their astronauts to our planet. When this happens, it should not be a surprise to people on Earth, particularly to the believers, who know about this issue from God's Book, the Holy Quran. Their arrival should not be a shock, which shakes people's faith. To the contrary, if these intelligent beings are believers, we should rejoice the event, which may lead to benefiting humanity. However, if they are not believers, then we need to be careful about dealing with them, as they may cause us harm. [10]

***

Second, Examples of Verses Containing Scientific Facts, Just Explained or Discovered Recently, About Life on Earth, in Relation to the Darkness of Ocean Waters, Formation of Clouds, Plant Pairs, and Sex of Insects  

11. Verse 24: 40, provides us with an accurate description of deep-water levels of darkness in the ocean

ۡ ٰ۬ ۡ۬ ۬ ۡٮٰ ۡ۬ ۡۦ ۡ۬ ۡۦ ۬ۚ ٰۢ ۡ ۡ ۡ ٓ ۡ  ۥ ۡ ۡ ٮٰǝۗ ۡ ۡ ٱ  ۥ ۬  ۥ ( 24: 40).

Or (the Unbelievers' state) is like layers of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by clouds: Layers of darkness, one above another, if a person stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! For anyone to whom Allah does not make light, he has no light (Al-Noor, 24: 40).

This scientific fact was discovered only few decades ago. Nobody could dive deep enough in the ocean, more than 1400 years ago, and come back to tell about what he/she saw there. Only in the 20th Century, humans were capable of seeing that after using their military submarines. For the general public, this happened in the 1980s, when the French oceanographer Philippe Causteau and his crew showed us some videos about the upper parts of the ocean depth, in their TV series.

Now, we know that there are three levels of light and darkness in ocean waters. The first level extends from the water surface to about 600 feet down, where the sun light can penetrate enough to enable us to see. The second level extends from 600 feet to about 3,000 feet under the sea surface, which allows only a small degree of the sun light and consequently a very small vision capability. The third level starts below 3,000 feet, which represents 90% of the ocean waters. This is the level of complete darkness, where a person may not be able to see his hand, as accurately described in this Verse. [11]

12. Verses 30: 48 and 24: 43 provide an accurate description of the water cycle, from winds to clouds, then to rain  

ٱ ٱ ۡ ٱٰ ۬ ۡ ۥ ٱٓ ۡ ٓ ۡ ۥ ۬ ٱۡۡ ۡ ۡ ٰۦۖ ٓ ۦ ٓ ۡ ۦۤ ۡ ۡۡ  ( 30: 48).

It is Allah Who sends the Winds, and they raise the Clouds. Then, He spreads them in the sky as He wills, and breaks them into fragments, until you see rain-drops coming out from the midst of it. When He makes them reach whoever He wills of his servants, then they rejoice! (Al-Room, 30: 48).

ۡ ٱ ۡ ۬ ۡ ۥ ۡ ۥ ۬ ٱۡۡ ۡ ۡ ٰۦ ٱٓ ۬ ۢ ۬ ۦ ٓ ۡ ۥ ٓۖ ۡۦ ۡ ٱٰۡ ( 24: 43).

Do not you see that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? Then, you will see rain coming out of it. And He sends down hail from the sky mountains (of clouds). He strikes whom He wills with it, and He turns it away from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its lightning is close to blinding the sights (of people) (Al-Noor, 24: 43).

These two verses accurately describe the water cycle, which starts with the evaporation of water from oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes, as a result of the sun heat. The wind helps water vapor molecules to become more condensed, as clouds. Then, winds carry clouds to other places, and up to the colder and higher layers of air, where water molecules become more condensed. At that point, water molecules become too heavy for the wind to carry, and drop down, in what we call as rain. Concerning hail, it forms as a result of more condensation of water molecules, when these are carried by wind to higher and consequently colder layers of the atmosphere. There, water molecules freeze as icy balls, which drop down as hail because clouds cannot carry them any more. [12]

13. Verse 36: 36 mentions that Allah, praise to Him, has created pairs for reproduction purposes, including human and plant pairs, as well as others unknown to us.

( 36: 36).

Exalted is He who created all pairs - from what the earth grows, and from themselves and from that which they do not know (Ya Seen, 36: 36).

In addition to this verse, which mentions the word pairs, there are other verses, which also mention it as singular (pair) and plural (pairs). These words refer to the male and female elements, which are necessary for the sexual reproduction in humans as well as in plants.

The word "pairs" mentioned in the above verses refers to the sexual reproduction in plants through the interaction between the male and female elements. This pairing can be found in two separate plants producing the same fruit (such as date-palm trees), or in two different flowers in the same plant (such as cucumbers), or in the same flower containing male and female organs (pistils and stamens), such as tomatoes. Insects and winds play a major role in carrying the male pollens to fertilize the female organs of various kinds of plants. These facts became accurately known recently, after the establishment of modern sciences and the invention of the telescope. [13]

14. The following verses mention eight kinds of insects. The first four verses mention bees, ants, mosquitos, and spiders, as singular female nouns. The other four verses mention flies, butterflies, locusts, and lice are mentioned in the plural form. This difference in referring to these insects represents scientific facts, which were discovered more than 13 centuries after revelation, when microscopes were invented, allowing scientists to distinguish male and female insects from each other. [14]

The first four kinds of insects were accurately mentioned in the singular female noun because only females are the active workers. It is the female bee, which works outside the nest and produces honey. Likewise, it is the female ant, which works outside the colony. Moreover, it is the female mosquito, which attacks humans and animals to suck their blood. Finally, it is the female spider, which builds its web-house to hunt other insects. Concerning the male bees, ants, and spiders, they are either killed or die after mating. For the male mosquito, it does not have the sucking needle that the female has. Consequently, it does not bite humans and animals to suck their blood as the female mosquito does.

In Verses 16: 68-69, there are three words that refer to the bee in the singular female form, as expressed in the three commands "ittakhidhi," () "Kuli," () and "fasluki" () (take, eat, and follow). Verse 27: 18 refers to the female ant with the singular female noun "namlaton." Likewise, Verse 2: 26 refers to the female mosquito with the singular female noun "ba'oudhatan." Verse 29: 41 refers to the spider in the singular female form, as expressed in past tense of the verb ""ittakhadhat (she took).  

In Verses 16: 68-69, we are told that it is the female bee that makes honey, a very recent bit of knowledge for humans. We know now that male bees die after mating with the queen and live only for about 90 days. Only female bees survive to be the workers, which gather nectar and make honey. This bit of knowledge could never be known to humans before the invention and use of microscopes.

ٰ ﴿٦٨﴾     ٰ ﴿٦٩﴾  ( 16: 68-69).

And your Lord inspired the (female) bees to take (build) its houses (hives) on mountains, trees, and in (people's) gardens (68)

Then (you female bee) eat from all the fruits and (you female bee) follow the ways of your Lord laid down (for you). There emerges from their bellies a drink, varying in colors, in which there is healing (cure) for people. In that, (there) is a sign for a people who give thought (Al-Na'hl, 16: 68-69).

In Verse 27: 18, there is a reference to a female ant speaking to other ants, which is also a recent bit of knowledge. We know now that male ants die after mating with the queen, and only female ants survive to be the workers, just like the case with bees mentioned above. This bit of knowledge could have never be known to humans before the invention and use of microscopes and the advanced studies in biology.  

ۡ  ( 27: 18).

" ... a female ant said: "O you ants enter your dwellings" (Al-Nahl, 27: 18).  

Verse 2: 26 refers to the mosquito with the singular female noun "ba'oudhatan."

( 2: 26). 

Indeed, Allah is not timid to present an example - that of a female mosquito or what is bigger than it (Al-Baqara, 2: 26).

This reference to the mosquito in the female noun form distinguish it from male mosquitos, for its different characteristics. Female mosquitos live twice the life of males. It is the one which sucks human and animal blood, which is necessary for production of its eggs. It is capable of doing that because it has a sucking needle that males do not have. That's why males feed on plant food.

Verse 29: 41 refers to the spider in the singular female form, as expressed in the past tense of the verb ""ittakhadhat (she took), because it is the female spider, which builds its web-house to hunt other insects. Males do not participate in building the house or are allowed to live in it. That's why the Verse refers to the house as the female spider house. 

Moreover, the Verse tells us that spider house is the weakest of houses, in a reference to the familial relationship between the female spider and her male mate. We know now that female spiders eat their male mates after the sexual intercourse. In some kinds of spiders, females lure males for mating in order to eat them. These scientific facts could not be known until the invention of microscopes and the establishment of the modern biology science. 

    ( 29: 41).

The example of those who take allies other than Allah is like that of the (female) spider, who takes a home. And indeed, the weakest of homes is the home of the (female)spider, if they only knew (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 41).

***

The other four kinds of insects, which are mentioned in the Holy Quran, are referred to in the plural noun form, applying to both males and females, reflecting scientific facts about them, which were discovered only lately after the invention of the microscope and the establishment of the modern biology science. In these four kinds of insects, both males and females work and females do not kill males, as in the cases of the four species mentioned above.

Verse 22: 73 mentions flies twice, in the plural form, reflecting a scientific fact. Biologist discovered that the fly life span is about 35 days, for both males and females. That is why the Verse referred to both of them in plural, without distinguishing one of them from the other.

      ( 22: 73).

O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah will never create flies, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the flies should steal away from them a (tiny) thing, they could not recover it from (the flies). Weak are the pursuer and pursued (Al-'Haj, 22: 73).

Verse 101: 4 describes how people will look like when they year the first blow of the Trumpet, ushering the beginning of the Hour, and starting the Last Day. At that moment, people will be disoriented and dispersed on Earth like the butterflies. 

( 101: 4).

It is the Day when people will be like the butterflies, dispersed (Al-Qari'a, 101: 4).

The Verse mentions the butterflies in the plural noun form, reflecting a scientific fact. There is no difference between male and female butterflies in their life span or work. Females are not distinguished from males in any important characteristic. Therefore, the plural noun form was used in the Verse.

Finally, in Verse 7: 133, locusts and lice are also mentioned in the plural noun form for each one of them, reflecting a scientific fact. There is no difference between males and females, in these two species, in their life span or stages of development.

( 7: 133).

So, We sent upon them the flood, locusts, lice, frogs, and blood, as distinct signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal people (Al-A'araf, 7: 133).

Locusts are also mentioned in another verse of the Holy Quran (54: 7), which describes people's condition after the second blow of the Trumpet, after they rise up from under the earth to its surface. They will be like the spreading locusts.

( 54: 7).

Their eyes humbled, they will emerge from the graves as if they were locusts spreading (Al-Qmar, 54: 7).

Scientists estimate the size of spreading locusts about 10 billion in each swarm. This is the closest image that we can imagine about the number of people who will come out of earth for Judgment, in the Last day. They will come out in waves, as Verse 78: 20 tells us: 

( 78: 18).

The Day the Trumpet is blown, you will come forth in waves (Al-Naba, 78: 18).

The world population now is more than 7 billion people, which is only one wave. Only God knows how many waves of humans will be there. 

***

15. The topic of the scientific facts in the Holy Quran has been addressed in many books, book chapters, and articles, which can be considered supplemental to this Chapter. These include various chapters of this book, particularly the fourth Chapter, Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran. Examples of other works, which address this topic are those authored by Zaghloul El-Naggar, Maurice Bucaille, Ibrahim and others, Shah Alam, Ebrahim Azarpour, Yahiya Emerick, and Mohammad Humayoun Khan. [15] 

16. Since the last few decades of the 14th Hijri Century (20th Christian Century), a new category of Muslim researchers has emerged with a focus on the numerical miracles of the Holy Quran. Needless to say that their works are still at the early stages, incremental, selective, and without agreed upon methods of research. However, their findings showed that the letters, words, verses, and chapters of the Holy Quran are mentioned in calculated numbers and in a tight numerical system. Thus, their works demonstrate that it is the Book of God, which could have never been authored by anyone else, except Him, as stated in verse 17: 88.

ٰ ٰ ( 17: 88).

Say, "If humans and the jinn gathered in order to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like of it, even if they backed up each other (with help and support)" (Al-Issra, 17: 88).

Moreover, their research findings provide evidence that such tight numerical system of the Holy Quran represents a guarantee that the Book of God will stay intact, without any changes, alterations, additions, or omissions. If any changes happen, then the numerical balance in the relationships of letters, words, verses, and chapters would have been affected, which would be discovered by researchers. Thus, Allah, praise to Him, has guarded His Book by making it self-preserving, as stated in verse 15: 9.

( 15: 9).

Indeed, We sent down the Quran and We will be its guardian (Al-Hijr, 15: 9).

Examples of Research on the Numerical Miracles of the Holy Quran

There have been hundreds of researchers, who focus on the numerical miracles of the Holy Quran. Here are brief introductions about four of them, just as examples, without any implication that other researchers are less important in their work or findings.

Rashad Khalifa (1973, 1981) was the first researcher in this category to discover the importance of number 19, as evidence for the tight numerical system in the Holy Quran. He started with the first verse of the Book of God, Al-Basmala. He found that it is composed of 19 letters. He also found that each of its words is repeated in the Holy Quran with a number, which is a perfect multiplier of the number 19. Further, he found that the separate letters, at the start of 29 chapters (Suras) of the Holy Quran, have specific numerical indications. For example, the separate letters (muqattaat): Alif, Lam, Meem (A L M), at the start of Chapters 2, 3, 29, 30, 31, and 32, are repeated in the Holy Quran 9,899 times, which is a multiplier of number 19. The findings of his research encouraged many researchers to follow his path, in their attempts to find more letter and word counts, which are multipless of number 19, and number 7 later on. However, despite his pioneering work, which triggered research in this area, Rashad Khalifa started to focus more on supporting his theory by any means than accepting his research findings. This led him to twist the data, to the extent that he suggested the exclusion of two verses, which did not suit his calculations. [16] 

Bassam Jarrar (2003) addressed the topic of number 19, showing its importance for the numerical miracle of the Holy Quran. He also used the gematrical (Jummal) calculation method, in assigning specific numerical values to the researched letters and verses. For example, he demonstrated that there is a numerical resemblance between the words Adam and Eissa (Jesus), both of which are mentioned in verse 3: 59, as follows:  

ٰ ۖ ( 3: 59).

  Indeed, the example of Eissa (Jesus) to Allah is like that of Adam. He created him of the earth matter (dirt or soil); then He said to him, "Be," and he was (Al-Imran, 3: 59).

He observed that the name of Eissa (Jesus), peace be upon him, is repeated in the Holy Quran 25 times. So does the name of Adam, peace be upon him, which is also repeated 25 times. Counting the word Eissa from the beginning of the Holy Quran until verse 3: 59, he found that it is repeated 7 times, so does the word Adam, which is also repeated 7 times.

He also looked for another resemblance, in another chapter, which he found in Surat Maryam (Chapter 19). Its known that Maryam was the daughter of Imran, and the first resemblance was in Surat Al-Imran (Chapter 3), where the first moment of the creation of Eissa (the inception) was mentioned. However, more details about his creation came in Chapter 19.

The word Eissa (Jesus) was mentioned in Surat Maryam (Chapter 19) only once, in verse 34, and that was the 19th time, counting from the beginning of the Holy Quran text. That was also the case for the word Adam, which was mentioned once, in verse 58 of the same Chapter, and that was also the 19th time, counting from the beginning of the Holy Quran text. 

Thus, in Chapter 19, the words Eissa was mentioned in the Holy Quran for the 19th time, so was the word Adam. Moreover, if we count starting from verse 34, which mentions Eissa, peace be to him, we find that verse 58 (which mentions Adam, peace be upon him) is the 25th verse. This is one more confirmation about the similarity between them.

In addition to his valuable efforts in showing the numerical miracles in the Book of God, Bassam Jarrar is one of the contemporary interpreters of the Holy Quran. His interpretations are characterized by a linguistic depth and by using evidence from social life and facts of science, which gave his videos much following on the internet. [17] 

Adnan Al-Rifa-i (2009) was also interested in number 19. He reorganized the Arabic alphabet in a certain way, giving each letter a different numerical value. Then, he applied his gematrical system to the first verse of the Holy Quran, Al-Basmala, which he described as the key to understand the numerical miracle of the Book of God, as it is composed of 19 letters.

He also mentioned verse 30 of Surat Al-Muddathir (Chapter 74), , as the only verse in the Holy Quran, which mentions number 19. It states that over (the hellfire), there are 19 (angels in charge). He found that the total gematrical value of its letters is 114, which is the total number of the Holy Quran chapters, and it is a multiple of number 19.

He added that if we exclude the repeated separate letters (muqattaat), the total gematrical value of the remaining letters will be 361, which is a multiple of number 19. Further, he pointed that the total gematrical value of verses 30-37 of Surat Al-Muddathir (Chapter 74) is 2,185, which is a multiple of number 19. In addition, he provided many examples of verses and verse parts, the gematrical values of which are multiples of number 19.

All in all, Adnan Al-Rifa-Is contributions and hard work deserve to be recognized, despite his selectivity  in onlhy giving examples of the cases which apply to his arguments, while not mentioning others which do not apply. Thus doing, his research method has the basic selectivity problem, which is facing the numerical miracle research in general. [18]   

Abdul Da-im Al-Kaheel (2006) has become one of the famous researchers in the topic of the numerical miracle of the Holy Quran, particularly because of the spread of his videos about that in the internet. He criticized the selectivity of other researchers, particularly Rashad Khalifah, who gave himself the liberty to delete the letters and words which did not fit his argument about number 19.

He pointed that there are other miraculous numbers in the Holy Quran, in addition to number 19, such as number 7, which he considered as the base for the numerical system of all words, verses, and chapters of the Holy Quran.

He found that number 11 is present in the letters of verses, which mention the Oneness of God. He also found number 13 as representing the number of years of the Prophets mission in Makkah, number 23 as representing the number of years in which the Prophet, pbbuh, received revelation, and number 29 as representing the number of chapters which start with separate letters (muqattaat). He also provided many numerical facts in the Holy Quran, including its first verse and first chapter, showing the numerical harmony (consistency) of number 7 in Surat Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112) of the holy Quran.

Al-Kaheel criticized other researchers who used gematrical systems, such as Hisab Al-Jummal, to give numerical values for the letters, words, and chapter numbers of the Holy Quran. He mentioned that such a method is scientifically baseless and whatever findings researchers found were the result of using selected examples. Further, he warned researchers to stay away from predicting dates of future events, because these are part of the unknown, which is the sphere of Allah alone.

He also observed that the current numerical miracle research is limited to the use of Al-Mushaf Al-Imam text of the Holy Quran, which is based on the reading of Hafs from Asim. Moreover, he called on researchers to come to an agreement on consistent research methods and on the used data, which should be from the Holy Quran text. He argued that if the methods and the data are correct, then the findings will be correct, which should represent a true miracle, not just a coincidence.

Actually, he took the initiative (2012) to address the problem of inaccuracy among some researchers, in counting the letters and words of the Holy Quran. He formed and chaired a Committee of experts from various Arab countries, which worked for about seven years, for that purpose. The main established standard the Committee came up with was counting a letter if it is physically written, not how it is pronounced. The Committee also developed a digitized copy of the Holy Quran, with search functions, and launched it to be used by researchers and the general public (2018). [19]

Khalid Al-Faqih (2017) wanted to avoid the selectivity problem, which was experienced by other researchers. Therefore, he embarked on a research endeavor, which applies to the whole text of the Holy Quran, using the gematrical system of Hisab Al-Jummal. He observed the rules and guidelines established by Abdul Da-im Al-Kaheel (2012) and his Committee, in order to be as accurate as possible in counting the letters and words of the Holy Quran. In particular, a letter is counted if it is physically written, not how it is pronounced. This means that the stressed letters are counted once, not twice as some researchers did.

He started with the calculation the Holy Quran Constant (HQC), by dividing its gematrical value (23,506,544) by the cumulative sum of verse numbers (333,667). The result was that the HQC is: 70.44911244, which resembles the way the Quran was mathematically designed, structured and configured. He argued that it must have the keys to unlock the secrets of the Quran, such as unleashing the Quran statistics (words, verses and chapters) and revealing its numerical connection with the golden ratio of living and non-things (Ф).

He calculated the Holy Quran Golden Ratio (HQGR), to compare it with the golden ratio, by dividing the number of the Holy Quran chapters (114) by the HQC (70.44911244). Thus, he found that the HQGR is: 1.618189304, which resembles the golden ratio of things (1.6180339887), with 99.99% accuracy. He considered that finding a clear piece of evidence that the Holy Quran is the Book of Allah, who designed His Book to match His other designs, in His dominium.  [20] 

=======================================================================================================================

Notes:

* This authors translation of the meanings of the verses mentioned in this book is solely his responsibility though he consulted with several translations of the Holy Quran, such as Sahih International, Yusuf Ali, Hilali & Khan, as well as Qaribullah & Darwish, which are carried by www.quranexplorer.com and www.tanzil.net. The author also made use of the interpretations offered by the three renowned the Holy Quran (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer).

Readers are advised that it is the meaning of the verses which is translated and interpreted here. It is a human effort that may be fallible and erroneous. Further, there are differences between a translator and another and between an interpreter and another due to differences in their linguistic, academic, and cultural backgrounds. There is no claim of ultimate accuracy in the translation, as verses of the Holy Quran can be best understood through the Arabic text of revelation.

Yahiya Emerick mentioned some of the above verses on pages 24-27 of his educational book, "What Islam Is All About." (1997). New York: IBTS.  

Note About the transliteration of the Arabic sounds:

There are three Arabic vowels and their three strong forms (Tanween, i.e. adding "N"). The first is the Fat'ha, which maybe expressed in English by the sound / a /, with its strong form of / an /. The second is the Kassra, which maybe expressed by the sound / i /, with its strong form of / in /. The third Arabic vowel is the Dhamma, which maybe expressed by the sound / u /, with its strong form of / un /.

Thus, following Arabic grammatical rules, the six vowel forms maybe illustrated in how a common noun, such as bab (door), maybe written and pronounced as baba, baban, babi, babin, babu, and babun.

 While all these six vowel forms are written in the Arabic text of the Holy Quran, not all of them are pronounced in recitation, particularly at the end of each verse. However, they maybe pronounced when several verses are continuously recited.

Arabic written words are mainly composed of consonants; vowels are added as symbols over or under a letter, as in the case of the text of the Holy Quran. However, in books and written media, only basic consonants and essential vowels are written as letters. No vowel symbols are added, as it is expected from an average educated Arabic speaker to know how to pronounce the words without vowel symbols.

Underlined letters in the Quran transliteration

Some Arabic letters and sounds have no counterparts in the English alphabet and the English phonetic transcription. There are nine Arabic sounds which have no equivalence in the English alphabet. These are ( ). Some translators underline the closest English letters to these Arabic letters, in order to tell readers that these are pronounced differently in Arabic. The closest sounds expressing the Arabic letters in parentheses, from right to left, are ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ). However, underlining them as ( h, kh, s, dh, t, tdh, a, gh, q ) conveys the message that these are different from the English sounds expressed by the letters of the English alphabet.

The Arabic letter and sound of Tha ( ) does not have an equivalent letter and sound in English. Therefore, it is transliterated by the two underlined English letters "th" to indicate that this is just one Arabic letter and sound. This is the case of the sound pronounced at the beginning of the English word "three." 

Another examples is that of the Arabic letter and sound of Dhal ( ), is transliterated by the two underlined English letters / dh / to indicate tht this is just one Arabic letter and sound. This is the case of the sound pronounced at the beginning of the English word "that."

This author uses this same method of underlining these letters, with the exception of the two Arabic letters expressed by the / h / and / a / sounds. Instead of underlining them, he adds an apostrophe before the letter to become / 'h / and / 'a / respectively. Using an apostrophe instead of underling a letter is for practical reasons only. First, these two letters are more frequently used than the other letters in the list. Second, it is easier to use the apostrophe on keyboards than adding underlining after writing.

As an example, an apostrophe is used before the English letter / a / to express the eighteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ayn /, as in the case of the transliteration of the Good Name of God, Al-'Azeez, the tenth on the list.

An apostrophe is also used before the English letter / h / to express the sixth letter of the Arabic alphabet / 'ha /, as in the case of translating the Good Name of God, Al-A'had,

The above usage of an apostrophe to help express the Arabic sound / 'a / may not be enough if the sound occurs at the end of a word, such as in the case of the Good Name of God, number 30, "Al-Samee'u." This Good Name of God is pronounced as "Al-Samee' " without conjugation. However, because the sound / 'a / occurs at the end of the word, the pronunciation may become distorted as / as-samee'a / instead of / as-samee ' /. As a solution, this author is using the conjugated form of the noun as a subject to become / as-samee'u /, the closest to the Arabic pronunciation.

[1] This research project was conducted by a team of astrophysicists, led by Ilsedore Cleeves, and was published at the Science magazine, under the title, "The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system," Science  26 Sep 2014: Vol. 345, Issue 6204, pp. 1590-1593.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/345/6204/1590

A summary of the findings of this study was published at the Los Angeles Times, on September 27, 2014, under the title, "Water on Earth predates the solar system, and even the sun." 

http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-old-water-on-earth-20140923-story.html

The first mentioned Hadith was narrated by Companion Abu Razeen Al-Uqayli, and recorded in Sahih Ibn Habban: 6141, Al-Tirmidhi: 3109, Al-Dhahabi: 18, Al-Tabari: 1/40, with little difference. The Arabic text of the 'Hadith is as follows:

: ֿ : " " ( : 6141 : 3109 : 18 : 1\ 40 ).

The second Hadith, which included Ibn Abbass answer, was narrated by Said Bin Jubair, and authenticated by Al-Albani: 584. The Arabic text of the 'Hadiths is as follows:

" ( : 584).

[2] See "What Is the Big Bang Theory?" by Elizabeth Howell, which was published at Space.com, on November 7, 2017, at:

https://www.space.com/25126-big-bang-theory.html

See also the NASA background information about the "Big Bang" and the inflation of the universe, at:

https://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-powered-the-big-bang

[3] There's an agreement that the American astrophysicist, Edwin Hubble, was the first to write about "the expanding universe," and how its components are separating from one-another in a huge speed, as documented in the Library of Congress publication, published at:

https://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/mysteries/universe.html

Mike Wall provided an illustrated summary of the Hubble theory about the expanding universe, at: 

https://www.space.com/35459-universe-expanding-faster-hubble-constant.html

More explanations of the Hubble Law and theory can also be found in other links, such as:

http://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_bigbang_expanding.html
 
http://www.atnf.csiro.au/outreach/education/senior/cosmicengine/hubble.html

[4] See, for example, the article written by Paul Ranter, about the first evidence for the existence of multiple and parallel universes, which was published on May 18, 2017, at:

http://bigthink.com/paul-ratner/scientists-find-what-could-be-the-first-proof-of-parallel-universes  

See also Elizabeth Howell's article about the multiple-parallel universes, which was published on April 28, 2016, at:

https://www.space.com/32728-parallel-universes.html

[5] Many contemporary Islamic researchers agree with the three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran, on that this Verse is a prophecy about human space travel. Among these are Abul Dayim Ku'hail, Muhammed Samir Al-'Arsh, Shaikh Muhammed Amin Al-Shanqiti, and Muhammed Zaghlool El-Najjar.

See for example the article written in Arabic, under the title of "The scientific miracle in Verse 84: 19," by Husni Hamdan Hamama, which was published on October 13, 2016, at: www.alukah.net/sharia/0/108483/.   

[6] In their interpretations of the meanings of Verse 55: 33, the three renowned interpreters did not attempt even to think about the possibility of human space travel between Earth and heavenly bodies. Al-Tabari, who is the earliest of them, interpreted it as the human space travel may happen during the Last Day, when humans and Jinn may try to flee from death by traveling to faraway zones (regions) of heavens and Earth.

Al-Qurtubi followed him in that interpretation but added that the verb "tanfudhoo" (to penetrate) may mean "to learn." Thus, his interpretation was that humans and Jin will try to know about the heavens and the Earth but they will not know until Allah permits that, giving them help through His angels. Ibn Katheers followed them in that the Verse describes what will happen in the Last Day but he did not mention the zones of heavens and the Earth. 

[7] The NASA report about the discovery of  the Trappist 1 planetary system is found at:

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-telescope-reveals-largest-batch-of-earth-size-habitable-zone-planets-around

[8] For more information about the precision and balance in gases, percentage of water, the relationship between the Earth and the Sun, and how that relationship affects the life of plants and animal, see the following articles, at:

https://www.calpoly.edu/~rfield/solstice.htm,  

https://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/jamestown-water-fs.html  

http://www.theozonehole.com/twenty.htm  

[9] Al-Tabari interpreted the verb "da'haha" as extended or flattened it for people to earn their living. He added Verse 79: 31, as an explanation because it mentions water and pasture land. Al-Qurtubi agreed with him, so did Ibn Katheer but he did not analyze the word linguistically, as they did.

For many centuries ago, Muslim scholars, including natural scientists, knew that the Earth is circular in its shape, not flat, using the Quran verses about the subject. Among these were Ibn 'Hazm, Al-Razi, Ibn Khurdatheba, Ibn Rasta, Al-Mass'oudi, Al-Irdeessi, and Al-Qizweeni.

See a survey of these Muslim scholars in the Arabic article, titled "Muslims who proved the circular shape of Earth," by Raghib Al-Sirjani, published at the "Islam Story" website, at:

https://islamstory.com/-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B3%D9%84%D9%85%D9%88%D9%86_

Recently, calculations showed that the Earth shape is less than a perfect circular globe. The diameter of the Earth at the equator is about 43 kilometers (27 mi) larger than the pole-to-pole diameter. As a result, the latest measurements indicate that the Earth has an equatorial diameter of 12,756 km (7926 mi), and a polar diameter of 12713.6 km (7899.86 mi).

Source: What is the diameter of Earth? By Matt Williams, published at "The Universe Today," on October 6, 2016, at:

https://www.universetoday.com/15055/diameter-of-earth/

[10] Human attempts to find out about intelligent life on other planets has increased recently, in various countries. China, for example, has just built the biggest radio-telescope in the world, for this purpose, with a diameter of 500 meters. This is bigger than the largest American telescope, which was built in Puerto Rico, with a diameter of 350 meters. See the following link for more information about the subject:

https://techcrunch.com/2016/07/05/china-invests-in-the-hunt-for-aliens-with-worlds-largest-radio-telescope/

[11] For more information about the ocean light zones, see: http://www.mbgnet.net/salt/oceans/zone.htm

[12] See the summaries of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for more information about how the rain and hail form, at:

https://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/global/precip.html

http://www.crh.noaa.gov/Image/mkx/2013/Finished%20Hail%20NewsStory.pdf

[13] See the following two sources about sexual and asexual reproduction in plants:

http://biology.tutorvista.com/plant-kingdom/plant-reproduction.html

http://encysco.blogspot.com/2011/12/blog-post_30.html

Other verses which mention pairs of plants:

ٱٓ ٓ۬ ۡۡ ۦۤ ۡٲ۬ ۬ ٰ  ( 20: 53).

"... and (God) has sent down water from the sky. With it, We have produced diverse pairs of plants (Taha, 20: 53).

ٱٲ ۡۡ ٱۡۡۖ  ( 13: 3).

"and of all fruits, He made in them pairs, two each (a male and a female) (Al-Ra'd, 13: 3).

ۡ ٱٓ ٓ۬ ۢۡ ڪ ۡ۬  ( 31: 10).

We send down water from the sky, (in order that) We cause goodly pairs to grow out of it (of earth) (Luqman, 31: 10).

  ( 36: 36). 

Glory to Him, Who created all pairs, of what the earth produces, of themselves (humans), and of others unknown to them (Ya Seen, 36: 36).

The word "pairs" mentioned in the above verses refers to the sexual reproduction in plants through the interaction between the male and female elements. This pairing can be found in two separate plants producing the same fruit (such as date-palm trees), or in two different flowers in the same plant (such as cucumbers), or in the same flower containing male and female organs (pistils and stamens), such as tomatoes. Insects and winds play a major role in carrying the male pollens to fertilize the female organs of various kinds of plants. These facts became accurately known recently, after the establishment of modern sciences and the invention of the telescope.

[14] See the following source about the female bee, which works and produces honey:

https://www.perfectbee.com/learn-about-bees/types-of-bees/

See the following source about the female ant, which works inside and outside its colony:

https://projects.ncsu.edu/cals/course/ent425/library/tutorials/behavior/ants.html

See the following source about the female mosquito, which feeds on human and animal blood:

http://www.tinymosquito.com/male-mosquitoes-female-mosquitoes.html

See the following sources about the female spider, which builds its house (web), eats the male after mating, and some kinks even before mating::

https://www.livescience.com/45066-virgin-female-spiders-eat-males.html

https://www.livescience.com/7555-creepy-cannibalism-female-spiders-eat-mates.html

See the following source about the life span of flies, males and female:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141201125154.htm

See the following source about butterflies, males and female:

https://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/

See the following source about locusts, males and female:

http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0hdl--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-0l--11-en-50---20-home---00-0-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00-0-0-11-10-0utfZz-8-00&cl=CL1.10&d=HASHd1edbf77fbe3fa2e5e3da5.4.2&x=1  

See the following source about the number of locusts in one swarm, which may reach to about 10 billion:

http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/walker/ufbir/chapters/chapter_27.shtml

See the following source about male and female lice:

https://www.ridlice.com/en/what-are-lice-head-lice/  

[15] Here is a list of references of some works about the scientific miracles of the Holy Quran, provided just as examples, without any implication that other researchers are less important in their work or findings.

El-Naggar, Zaghloul. 2012. The Scientific Connotations in the Holy Quran: The six days of creation of the Universe, as viewed by applied sciences. Al-Jazeerah, June 1.

http://www.aljazeerah.info/Islamic%20Editorials/2012/June/The%20Scientific%20Connotations%20in%20the%20Holy%20Quran%20By%20Zaghloul%20El-Naggar.htm

El-Naggar, Zaghloul. 2005. The Case of the Scientific Evidence in the Holy Quran (Arabic Edition: ). Amazon.com.

https://www.amazon.com/Dr-Zaghloul-El-Naggar/e/B00J0B4ELG/ref=dp_byline_cont_book_1

Bucaille, Maurice. 1976. La Bible, le Coran et la Science: Les Écritures Saintes examines la lumire des connaissances modernes. Seghers.

Bucaille, Maurice. 1986. The Bible, The Quran and Science: The Holy Scriptures Examined In The Light Of Modern Knowledge. Archive.org (The English translation was by Alastair D. Pannell and the author, published first in Delhi: Taj).

https://archive.org/stream/TheBibletheQuranScienceByDr.mauriceBucaille/TheBibletheQuranScienceByDr.mauriceBucaille_djvu.txt

Ibrahim, I. A. and 12 others. 1996. A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam. Darus Salam.

https://www.islam-guide.com/islam-guide.pdf

Alam, Shah Manzoor. 1999. Scientific significance in selected Quranic verses. Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University.

http://stepsquare.com/Scientific-significance-in-selected-Quranic-verses--or--cby-Shah-Manzoor-Alam--reviewed-by-Zaghloul-/8/befijdc

Azarpour, Ebrahim, Maral Moraditochaee, and Hamid Reza Bozorgi. 2014. Nutritional and Biochemical Compounds of Quranic Plants. Biological Forum An International Journal 6(2): 242-248.

https://www.researchtrend.net/bfij/bf12/42%20EBRAHIM%20AZARPOUR-

Emerick, Yahiya. 2005. What Islam is All About. Amazon.com.

https://www.amazon.com/What-Islam-All-About-Hardcover/dp/1933269022

Khan, Mohammad Humayoun. 1982. The Physics of the Day of Judgment. Al-Madinah Al-Munawarra.

http://www.endphysics.com/

[16] Main books of Rashad Khalifa:

Khalifa, Rashad. 1973. Miracle of Quran: Significance of the Mysterious Alphabets. Louis, MO: Islamic Productions International, Inc.

Khalifa, Rashad. 1981. "The Computer Speaks: Gods Message to the World." Renaissance Productions International.

Khalifa, Rashad (1982). Quran: Visual Presentation of the Miracle. USA: Islamic Productions.

Khalifa, Rashad (1989). Quran: The Final Testament. USA: Islamic Productions.

[17] Jarrar, Bassam. 2001. Numeric Miracles of the Holy Quran: Chosen Examples. Al-Bireh: Noon Center for Quranic Studies & Research.

http://www.islamnoon.com/language/chosen%20examples.pdf

(2003): " " :

http://www.islamnoon.com/Motafrkat/mokademat.htm

[18] Al-Rifa-i, Adnan. 2009(Dec. 31). Al-Mujizatul Kubra (Arabic for The Great Miracle): Pages152-159. It is also carried on the authors website, at:

http://www.thekr.net/media/kotob/%20%20.pdf

(2009): " : ." : (1601): 152-159.

[19] Al-Kaheel, Abdul Daem. 2006. The Marvels of the Number Seven in the Noble Quran. Kaheel 7. 

http://kaheel7.com/Book/Marvels_BookSeven.pdf  (English)   

. 2006. " ." 7.   

http://www.kaheel7.com/book/number_seven_in_quran.pdf ()  

.Al-Kaheel, Abdul Daem. 2012. Secrets of Quran Miracle: some basic guidelines to numeric miracle. Available online at:  

http://kaheel7.com/eng/Book-eng/Part%20-one.pdf

Al-Kaheel, Abdul Daem. (2018). Numerical Software of the Holy Quran: Issue 4, the Golden Issue.

. 2018. " : 4 ."

http://www.kaheel7.com/ar/index.php/1/1690-2014-07-03-19-11-02>.

Abdul Da-im Al-Kaheel (2006) demonstrated the importance of number 7 in the Holy Quran by providing many statistics about it. He used the method of lining up (joining together) numbers of letters, verses, and chapters, resulting in cumulative numbers which are multiples of number 7.

He mentioned many verses, which include number 7 or its multiples, such as 7 spikes (ears) of grain (Al-Baqara, 2: 261), 70 men (Al-Aaraf, 7: 155), 70 times (Al-Tawba, 9: 80), 7 cows and 7 spikes (ears) of grain (Yousuf, 12: 42), 7 gates (Al-Hijr, 15: 44), 7 young men (Al-Kahf, 18: 22), 7 seas (Luqman, 31: 27), 7 heavens and 7 earths (Al-Talaq, 65: 12), 7 nights (Al-Haaqqa, 69: 7), and 70 dhiras: about 20 inches each (Al-Haaqqa, 69: 32). The word Al-Qiyama (the Rising Day) was mentioned 70 times, and the word Jahannam (the Hell) was mentioned 77 times.

In addition, he found that there are 7 chapters of the Holy Quran, which start with exalting Allah (tasbeeh). These are Al-Issra (17), AlHadeed (57), Al-Hashr (59), Al-Saff (61), Al-Jumua (62), Al-Taghabun (64), and Al-Aala (87).

He also found that there are 7 verses about the creation of the heavens and the Earth in six days. These are Al-Aaraf, 7: 51; Younus, 10: 3; Hood, 11: 7; Al-Furqan, 25: 59; Al-Sajda, 32: 4; Qaf, 50: 38; and AlHadeed, 57: 4.

Moreover, number 7 is associated with the number of the 7 heavens, which are mentioned in 7 verses. These are Al-Issra, 17: 44; Al-Muminoon, 23: 86; Fussilat, 41: 12; Al-Talaq, 65: 12; Al-Mulk, 67: 3; and Nooh, 71: 15.

Further, he pointed to the fact that the Holy Quran is written with the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet, which is a multiple of number 7. Then, he mentioned that Surat Al-Fatiha (the first Chapter of the Holy Quran) is composed of 7 verses (as confirmed in Surat Al-Hijr, 15: 87) and that it is written with 21 letters of the Arabic alphabet, which is a multiple of number 7. He added that there are 14 chapters of the Holy Quran, which start with separate letters (muqattaat) that are not repeated in other chapters. This is also a multiple of number 7.

Finally, he mentioned several facts which are related to number 7, such as the seven electron shells around an atom, the seven days of the week, the seven colors of the spectrum, the seven layers of Earth, the seven circumambulations around the Kaba, and the seven runs between Safa and Marwa, during the pilgrimage in Makkah.      

[20] Al-Faqih, Khaled M. S. 2017. A Mathematical Phenomenon in the Quran of Earth-Shattering Proportions: A Quranic Theory Based on Gematria Determining Quran Primary Statistics (Words, Verses, Chapters), and Revealing Its Fascinating Connection with the Golden Ratio. Journal of Arts and Humanities: Volume 6, Number 6, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA.

https://www.theartsjournal.org/index.php/site/article/view/1192

According to Al-Faqih (2017), the total Abjad value (AV) of the Quran is equal to the sum of the Abjad (gematrical) values of the three divine components of the Quran. First, the calculated Abjad value of the Quran (114 chapters, 6,236 verses, 86,967 words and 322,604 letters) equals 23,378278. Second, the total Abjad value of the 19 letters that constitute the Bismillahis 786, thus  the total Abjad value of the 112 un-numbered Bismillahs is (112786) = 88032.Third, the total Abjad value of the 652 letters of the names of the 114 chapters is 40234. Thus, the total Abjad value (AV)  of  the Holy  Quran  is  the  sum  of  the  three  components  (23378278+88032+40234), which  equals 23,506,544.

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About the Author and the Book:

* The author of this book, Hassan Ali El-Najjar, has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
 
The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from
www.tanzil.net
.

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.

  ( 61: 8).  

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.

editor@aljazeerah.info