Al-Jazeerah: Cross-Cultural Understanding
News, May 2022
Palestinian American Journalist, Shireen Abu Aqleh, Three Other Civilians, Assassinated by Israeli Occupation Soldiers
May 11, 2022
While brutal force has been used to create Zionist Israel and sustain it thus far, Zionist claims to Palestine are false. Actually, from the five thousand years of known written history, there has been a continuous Palestinian-Canaanite presence in the Holy Land. Despite the Zionist false claims, the ancient Israelites ruled part of the land for only 85 years (during the reign of David, Solomon, and Solomon's son).
After that, the Egyptians conquered Palestine-Canaan in 925 BC, followed by Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans, before the Arab Muslim rule, starting from 636 AD.
By the Time Jesus started his mission, the three population groups of Canaanites, Palestinians, and Israelites were melted together in religion and language. Most of them became Christians when Constantine converted in 313 AD. Then, most of them became Muslims in the 7th and 8th centuries AD.
So, Palestinian Muslims, Christians, and Jews are the ones who have the right to claim descent from ancient Israelites, Palestinians, and Canaanites, not Zionists from other continents.
The following news stories are just examples of the Israeli occupation government abuse, mistreatment, and violations of Palestinian human rights, on daily basis.More detailed news stories can be found at the following sources:
http://english.wafa.ps/, https://english.palinfo.com/, https://imemc.org/, https://paltoday.ps/ar/
Palestinian young man, Khalil Muslat Al-Yaoori, 18, was killed by Israeli occupation soldiers in Al-Beereh, with a bullet in his heart, today, May 11, 2022
Palestine Today, May 11, 2022
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Israeli Occupation Soldiers Kill Veteran Palestinian Journalist, Shireen Abu Aqleh, Injure Another, In Jenin
IMEMC, MAY 11, 2022
Israeli occupation soldiers killed, Wednesday dawn, a prominent Palestinian journalist, Al-Jazeera TV correspondent Shireen Abu Aqleh, 51, and injured another journalist after targeting them with sniper fire when many journalists gathered to cover an invasion of Jenin refugee camp in the northern West Bank.
The Palestinian Health Ministry has confirmed that Shireen was shot with a live round in the head while wearing his press vest and helmet when an Israeli army sharpshooter fired one round at her.
The Ministry added that the soldiers first shot journalist Ali Sammoudi with a live round in the back, just as the journalists from various media agencies gathered in an open area in a clear line of sight from Israeli soldiers when the army committed its heinous crime.
Sammoudi, who was shot in the back, said that he, Shireen, and several other journalists gathered near a UNRWA-run school near Jenin refugee camp and were all wearing press vests and helmets before the soldiers shot him in the back and then shot Shireen with a live round in the head.
“The soldiers had a clear view of us. They knew we were journalists, yet, then deliberately targeted us with sniper fire,” Sammoudi said, “Nothing was happening there, no protests, no exchange of fire between the soldiers and the Palestinian fighters; they targeted us knowing we are all journalists – what they did was a crime and a deliberate attack.”
Al-Jazeera TV issued a statement denouncing the deliberate targeting of reporters, the assassination of Shireen Abu Aqleh, and the shooting of Ali Sammoudi.
Al-Jazeera said Abu Aqleh was assassinated and was not by accident and added that eyewitnesses and other journalists, including Shatha Hanaysha, who was standing next to Shireen, revealed that the army killed Shireen before its snipers also pinned down Hanaysha and several journalists.
“We stood together in a collective way as journalists, then we started moving. We were shocked by the live ammunition fired at us, we reached an area that did not allow us to withdraw.” Hanaysha told Al-Jazeera.
“We were just facing the snipers. If they were not really willing to kill some of us, they could have started shooting before our arrival in this narrow area. I see this as a clear assassination of journalists,” she said.
“The one that killed Shireen was intended to kill her because he shot the bullet at an area of her body that was not protected,” Hanaysha also said.
The Al-Jazeera Media Network issues an official statement condemning the Israeli crime and holding the Israeli government and its occupation army responsible.
“Al Jazeera Media Network condemns this heinous crime, which intends to only prevent the media from conducting their duty. Al Jazeera holds the Israeli government and the occupation forces responsible for the killing of Shireen. It also calls on the international community to condemn and hold the Israeli occupation forces accountable for their intentional targeting and killing of Shireen.”
“The Israeli authorities are also responsible for the targeting of Al Jazeera producer Ali al-Sammoudi, who was also shot in the back while covering the same event, and is currently undergoing treatment.”
“Al Jazeera extends its sincere condolences to the family of Shireen in Palestine and to her extended family around the world, and we pledge to prosecute the perpetrators legally, no matter how hard they try to cover up their crime, and bring them to justice.”
Shireen was born in occupied Jerusalem in the year 1971; she hails from a Palestinian Christian family in Bethlehem. She lived in Jerusalem and, as a child, she studied at the Rosary Sisters School in Beit Hanina, in occupied Jerusalem.
She obtained her B.A. degree in journalism from Al-Yarmouk University in Jordan and returned to Palestine where she worked in various professions, including Palestine Radio, The UNRWA, Amman Satellite TV, Radio Monte Carlo, and in the year 1997, she started working for the Al-Jazeera News Agency.
The Palestinian Authority condemned the assassination of Shireen and the ongoing Israeli crimes against civilians, including Journalists.
Prime Minister Mohammad Shtayyeh issued a statement mourning the killing of Abu Akleh and denouncing the Israeli crime. “She was killed while exposing the horrific Israeli crimes against the Palestinian people.”
The Execution of Shirin: Yet Another Journalist Gunned Down by Israeli Occupation Soldiers
IMEMC, MAY 12, 2022
After the Israeli occupation soldiers deliberately targeted journalist Shirin Abu Aqleh, we started hearing various condemnations around the world, which is, in fact, the very least that can and should be done. However, the calls for “investigating her death” are possibly the worst response to this injustice, for this crime, for this atrocity.
And of course, I know some might ask, “Why not? Let them investigate and reach a conclusion…” but let’s call things what they really are. The Israeli soldiers saw her, they saw her colleagues, and they chose to open fire, disregarding the press vests, international law, and humanity itself.
Those calling for an investigation are mainly those who want, once again, to acquit Israel and absolve it from its constant and escalating crimes.
The facts are there, the videos are clear, but the Israeli lies, and fabrications are everywhere. Simply put, the soldiers, especially the murderer — that criminal, that Israeli military sharpshooter, knows he made a clear choice to kill her although he could clearly see she is a journalist.
But, why not? Let’s kill her, and the world might get angry, but then they will forget, and others will start fabricating reports criminalizing the victim and praising the killer.
Shireen Abu Aqleh was a prominent, well-known journalist, news anchor, educator, and eloquent speaker who exposed Israel and its crimes throughout her career and exposed the true racist nature of this criminal occupation and its apartheid regime.
Israel can falsely claim that the bullet that killed Shirin might not have been fired by its army, but there is nothing new here. Israel’s standard procedure is to whitewash its crimes. Every time the Israeli occupation soldiers have killed a child, a woman, an elder, a journalist, a physically challenged Palestinian… etc., they always have a textbook response.
“It wasn’t us; it was them [the Palestinians]. We had to kill him, we had to kill her, we had to kill them because we were defending ourselves.”
Yet, they are the occupiers, the oppressors, and the murderers, and they are the offenders; the mere existence of any occupation army is an offensive in itself, and the people, the occupied, have the right to defend themselves and resist this occupation by all means possible.
But let us talk about the new/old Israeli lie this time around, this “claim”, this “possibility” that Shirin may have been killed by a Palestinian. The Israeli army started justifying their crime – as they always do, trying to sow the seeds of uncertainty by making preposterous, false claims that are then repeated by the media. In this case, their ‘damage control’ was a demonstrably false claim that a Palestinian was in the area and opened fire at their soldiers and that he might have been the one who killed her.
The problem with this lie is that the Israeli army claims a Palestinian “opened fire at the soldiers” – but the soldiers were invading an area that had no clear line of sight, no clear line of fire, between the Palestinian resistance fighter and the area where Shirin and her fellow reporters were standing.
The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories (B’Tselem), investigated the location and clearly documented how the Palestinian fighter, in the location he was as shown in the video released by the army itself, could not have possibly been the one that killed Shireen.
The other issue with this lie is that Shirin and another journalist were ducking behind a wall and were in clear line of sight of the Israeli soldiers who chose to ignore their press vests, and chose to ignore humanity (if they had any humanity to start with), and decided to take aim with the sniper scope and fire.
Every journalist who was there, every witness, knows and saw how the area was calm, no protests, no exchanges of fire, nothing, just calm, calm that preceded the storm which started after the soldiers decided to take aim and kill her.
Ali Sammoudi, who was the first to be shot and injured before the army decided to execute Shirin, described the Israeli allegations as total lies.
“There was calm in the area where we stopped, our press vests and equipment and our presence clearly identified us as journalists. There were no Palestinian fighters, not even protesters throwing stones, and then Shirin collapsed and began bleeding heavily when the Israeli army sniper shot her in the head.” Sammoudi added.
It is as simple and as horrific as it sounds, and what might be even worse is that Israel, its politicians, and soldiers, know too well that the worst that will happen will be condemnations, nothing else, no sanctions, no accountability, and above all the ever-present American Veto to protect and shield it from prosecution, and a constant flow of billions of dollars in American aid to Israel and its racist, criminal occupation.
Shirin is not the first journalist to be murdered by Israel, not the first to be injured, and unfortunately, and as much it saddens me to say, she won’t be the last.
Shirin lived for the truth, justice, and the freedom of the press.
One of her most recent words in a spontaneous interview on the steps of Bab al-Amoud in occupied Jerusalem sums up her humanity: “I am the daughter of Jerusalem, and I love seeing it happy.”
Israeli Occupation Soldiers Kill Palestinian Mahmoud Sami Khalil Arram, Near Tulkarem
IMEMC, MAY 9, 2022
In the second killing on Sunday evening, Israeli occupation forces shot and killed Mahmoud Sami Khalil Arram, 27, near the Jabara military checkpoint, south of Tulkarem in the northern West Bank.
Arram was from Khan Younis, in the southern part of the Gaza Strip, and had come to the West Bank in 2019 to treat a medical condition.
Palestinians from the Gaza Strip are rarely, if ever, allowed to enter the West Bank. This utter separation of the two Palestinian Territories has ripped apart families and kept the Palestinian people divided, unable to meet in person across the Israeli-controlled barrier.
The Israeli military claimed that Aram was shot while trying to cross through a hole in the illegal Annexation Wall near Jabara.
In a statement, military officials claimed that soldiers “spotted a person who attempted to illegally cross the security fence” near the city of Tulkarem and fired at him.
It added that the soldiers shot at him in what the army called “in accordance with procedures.”
The Palestinian Health Ministry confirmed the identity of the deceased as Mahmoud Arram. He was taken to the Sheba Hospital in central Israel, where he died of his wounds.
The Palestinian Wafa news agency reported that Israeli troops shot and killed Arram near the Jabara military checkpoint.
His uncle said Mahmoud was receiving treatment for his eye, and due to the difficulty in returning to Gaza and leaving it again for his medical appointments, he decided to stay in Jericho until he finished his medical treatment.
The uncle added that Mahmoud had received treatment for the last three years. “He has appointments for his treatment and was hoping to finish his treatments and be able to come back to Gaza.”
“This is heartbreaking, devastating to all of us,” he added, “Mahmoud wasn’t a threat to anybody and just needed to finish his treatment. We are hoping Israel will transfer his body to us in Khan Younis so that we can give him a proper burial.”
The Israeli occupation army repeatedly at Palestinians, especially workers, who are trying to reach their destinations, such as work or hospitals, through breaches of the illegal Annexation Wall.
This shooting of Arram came just after Israeli forces stationed in the southern part of the West Bank shot and killed a Palestinian teen there, claiming that he had trespassed onto the land of the illegal colonial settlement of Tuqu’.
18-Year Old Palestinian Killed by Israeli Occupation Forces near Bethlehem
IMEMC, MAY 9, 2022
On Sunday evening, Israeli occupation forces opened fire on a Palestinian youth near the illegal Israeli colonial settlement of Tuqu’, east of Bethlehem, in the occupied West Bank, killing him.
The youth who was killed was identified as 18-year-old Mo’tasem Mohammad Atallah, from the town of Harmala, east of Bethlehem.
The Israeli military claimed that the young man had infiltrated the colony’s land, and was “trespassing on the private property of a resident”. After killing him, the soldiers found a knife in Atallah’s pocket and claimed that was their justification for killing him.
The army then issued an order to all of the illegal Israeli settlers living in the colony of Tuqu’ to stay in their homes, saying (without evidence) that they suspected a terrorist attack was underway.
The Palestinian Ministry of Health did not confirm the identity of the young man, but the Palestinian Authority acknowledged that a young man had been killed, without confirming his identity.
Israeli paper Yedioth Ahronoth reported that “a Palestinian who infiltrated the Tekoa settlement was shot, and he was neutralized”, adding that, “the residents of Tekoa ‘ were instructed to stay in their homes for fear of infiltration into the settlement after a suspect entered a house in the settlement and was shot.” The paper also reported that Atallah was one of four young men who had entered the settlement.
No other Palestinians were apprehended. No Israelis were injured.
The killing of Atallah came after a week of lockdown in the West Bank and Gaza Strip by the Israeli military forces which run the two Palestinian Territories under martial law.
On Sunday, following a security assessment, Israeli military officials decided to reopen the crossings which had been closed for the past week – first in preparation for Jewish holidays, then, after an attack in Elad, Israel which left three Israelis dead on Thursday. The closure remained in place for residents of the village of Rommana, in the northern West Bank, which is home to the two Palestinians suspected of carrying out the Elad attack.
Also Sunday evening, another Palestinian young man was killed by Israeli forces near Tulkarem. He was identified as Mahmoud Sami Khalil Aram.
Israeli Occupation Soldiers Injure Many Schoolchildren Near Nablus
IMEMC, MAY 10, 2022
On Tuesday, Israeli occupation soldiers invaded Burqa town northwest of the northern West Bank city of Ramallah, leading to protests, and causing dozens of schoolchildren to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation.
Ghassan Daghlas, a Palestinian official who monitors Israel’s illegal colonialist activities in the northern West Bank, said several army jeeps invaded the town, especially the schools area, leading to protests.
He added that the soldiers fired many live rounds, gas bombs, and concussion grenades, especially at the two schools, causing many schoolchildren and staffers to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation.
Israeli Occupation Soldiers Injure Many Palestinians In Tulkarem
IMEMC, MAY 10, 2022
On Monday evening, Israeli occupation soldiers injured many Palestinians after the army attacked Palestinian cars driving on the al-Kafriyyat road, south of Tulkarem, in the northern part of the occupied West Bank.
Eyewitnesses said the soldiers closed the al-Kafriyyat road and prevented the Palestinians from crossing in both directions.
They added that the soldiers fired gas bombs at the Palestinian cars causing many residents to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation.
The Palestinians had to leave the area and look for alternate ways to reach their villages and town south of Tulkarem.
Israeli Occupation Soldiers Shoot 14 Palestinians near Nablus
IMEMC, MAY 10, 2022
Israeli occupation soldiers attacked Palestinian civilians near Nablus, shooting thirteen with rubber-coated steel bullets and one with live ammunition near dawn on Tuesday.
The confrontation took place when Israeli soldiers invaded the holy site of Joseph’s Tomb east of Nablus.
Joseph’s Tomb, believed to be the location where the prophet Joseph was buried, has been venerated by Samaritans since the second century CE. A community of several hundred Samaritans have lived continuously in the hills outside Nablus for 2,000 years – although they practice Judaism, they are Arabic-speaking and are not accepted by Israel as a Jewish tribe.
The site has become, in recent years, a place of pilgrimage for extremist Israeli Jewish settlers, many of whom attack Palestinians on their way into and out of what they consider to be a holy site. Some Jewish theological scholars have pointed out, “the patriarch Joseph was not an Israelite hero who became Egyptianised, but an Egyptian divinity who was Hebraised”.
In the attack on Tuesday, dozens of Israeli settlers stormed Joseph’s Tomb, amid protection from the Israeli army, and confrontations erupted in the area.
Israeli forces invaded the area near the tomb, where they were met by youth from the nearby village who began to throw stones at the invading military. The army shot at the youth with less-than-lethal and live ammunition.
Ahmad Jibril, director of the Emergency and Ambulance Center in the Red Crescent in Nablus, said that clashes erupted in the vicinity of Joseph’s tomb, which led to the injury of a young man with live bullets in the abdomen.
In addition, 13 people were hit with rubber-coated metal bullets, one of them in the face.
27 civilians suffered from tear gas inhalation, including people who were gassed while in their homes. Most were treated on site, but one was taken to the hospital for treatment.
Illegal Israeli Settlers Injure Palestine TV Crew In Qalqilia, Israeli Occupation Soldiers Injure Many Palestinians
IMEMC, MAY 9, 2022
On Monday evening, Illegal Israeli settlers injured Palestine TV reporters before Israeli occupation soldiers caused many Palestinians to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation in Azzoun town, east of Qalqilia, in the northern part of the occupied West Bank.
The colonizers attacked the reporters with batons and hurled stones at them at the town’s main entrance, causing several injuries.
They also tried to prevent the journalists from documenting protests that took place after Israeli soldiers invaded the town.
The journalists have been identified as Ahmad Shawar, Bashar Nazzal, and Ayman Nazzal; they suffered various cuts and bruises.
Israeli soldiers also caused many Palestinians to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation during the protests, which erupted after the army closed the iron gate at the main entrance of the town while illegal colonizers gathered in the area.
Israeli Occupation Soldiers Abduct 11 Palestinians, Including Children
IMEMC, MAY 9, 2022
In pre-dawn raids on Monday, Israeli occupation forces abducted 11 Palestinians from different parts of the West Bank.
In Jenin, Israeli occupation forces abducted four young men from the town of Rummana, identified as: Rawad Wissam Sbeihat, Ihab Nabil Mahajneh, Jihad Muhammad al-Amour, and Ibrahim Muhammad Shawqi al-Amour. Rummana has been under strict closure, with no one allowed to leave home since Israeli forces invaded the town Thursday claiming that two young men from Rummana were responsible for a terrorist attack in Elad, Israel on Thrsday in which three Israelis were killed.
From Ramallah, Israeli forces abducted the freed prisoner Mahmoud Imad Al-Rimawi (22 years), from Beit Rima, and the young man Nadim Al-Naasan from Al-Mughayyir, after beating him and smashing his vehicle.
From Nablus, Israeli forces abducted Ibrahim Hashash (17 years), Mustafa Quneis (20 years), from the Jawad area in Beit Jala, and Adnan Shamasneh from Qatana, northwest of Jerusalem.
From Hebron, Israeli forces abducted the 16-year-old boy from Al-Fawwar refugee camp, Islam Hassan Al-Ra’i, and from Salfit District, Saher Ammar Mar’i from Qarawat Bani Hassan.
Israeli Occupation Soldiers Injure Several Palestinians, One Seriously, Near Salfit
IMEMC, MAY 8, 2022
On Saturday night, Israeli occupation soldiers injured several Palestinians, including one who was shot in the neck in Hares village, west of Salfit, in the central West Bank, after illegal Israeli colonizers invaded it.
Several army jeeps invaded the village, leading to protests before the soldiers fired many live rounds, rubber-coated steel bullets, and gas bombs.
Medical sources said the soldiers shot one Palestinian, Daoud Daoud, with a live round in the neck, causing a severe injury.
They added that the soldiers also shot three with rubber-coated steel bullets and caused many others to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation.
The head of Hares Village Council, Omar Samara, said the residents intercepted an invasion by illegal Israeli colonizers into the western entrance of their village before the soldiers invaded it and opened fire at the Palestinians.
It is worth mentioning that the colonizers also cut and uprooted at least thirty olive trees in Qisarya and Arara, north of Kafr ed-Deek, west of Salfit.
The trees are owned by Emad Ismael Ahmad, Nasser Mohammad Othman, Ali Ahmad, and Aziz Yousef Qassoul.
The colonizers came from the illegal Bruchin colony, built on stolen Palestinian lands owned by residents from Kafr ed-Deek and Bruqin towns west of Salfit.
On Saturday evening, Israeli soldiers abducted three Palestinians, including a teenage boy, in Jenin and Tubas, in the occupied West Bank.
The soldiers also shot two Palestinians with rubber-coated steel bullets and caused many to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation in Beit Ummar town, north of Hebron, in the southern part of the occupied West Bank.
Furthermore, illegal Israeli colonizers attacked a Palestinian man near Nablus in the northern part of the occupied West Bank, causing many injuries.
Israeli Occupation Soldiers Shoot Two Palestinians North Of Hebron
IMEMC, MAY 8, 2022
On Saturday, Israeli occupation soldiers shot two Palestinians with rubber-coated steel bullets and caused many to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation in Beit Ummar town, north of Hebron, in the southern part of the occupied West Bank.
Local sources said several army jeeps invaded the town, leading to protests before the soldiers fired rubber-coated steel bullets, gas bombs, and concussion grenades.
They added that the soldiers shot two young men with rubber-coated steel bullets and caused many to suffer the effects of tear gas inhalation.
The attacks occurred after the Palestinians protested an invasion by colonizers and soldiers into the Safa area in Beit Ummar, especially after the colonizers attacked a few homes.
Also, Israeli colonizers attacked many cars driving on a bypass road in the al-Jalajel and Beit Einoun areas, east of Hebron, in the southern part of the occupied West Bank.
In related news, several army jeeps invaded the Shu’fat refugee camp northeast of occupied Jerusalem, leading to protests.
Israeli Collective Punishment Policy: IOF Demolish Family House of Palestinian Prisoner”
IMEMC, PCHR, MAY 8, 2022
Date: 7 May 2022 – Time: 17:00 GMT:
The Palestinian Center For Human Rights (PCHR): Under its collective punishment policy against Palestinians accused of conducting attacks against Israeli occupation forces (IOF) or settlers, IOF demolished the family house of a Palestinian prisoner from Jenin.
According to investigations conducted by the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR), at approximately 03:00 on Saturday, 7 May 2022, IOF accompanied by a bulldozer, Special Unit Members, and Engineering and Explosive Devices teams of experts moved into Silat al-Harithiya village, west of Jenin.
They surrounded Omar Ahmed Mohammed Yasin Jaradt’s house on the outskirts of the village and forced its residents to leave along with 10 other families living in nearby houses. IOF fired tear gas canisters and sound bombs to stir fear among civilians and prevent them from approaching.
As a result, civilians gathered in the area where IOF deployed and threw stones at the latter amidst clashes where IOF fired rubber-coated and live bullets, tear gas canisters, and stun grenades at the protestors.
As a result, several persons suffocated due to tear gas inhalation and were treated in the field. IOF also arrested Mohammed Naser Abu-Ahmed Salah (25) from the village.
During the raid, which continued until 07:00 in the morning, IOF planted explosives inside the second floor of Jaradat’s family 3-floor family home, and remotely detonated them causing partial destruction to the entire building; each floor is 150 sqm, and a family of three lived there, including one child.
It should be noted that Israeli occupation authorities approved the demolition of Jaradat’s house on 1 March 2022. Jaradat was arrested by the IOF on 19 December 2021 after accusing him, along with others, of killing an Israeli settler in an attack near Homesh settlement, northern Nablus, on 16 December 2021.
So far in 2022, IOF demolished 5 houses and sealed a sixth after destroying its internal contents. These attacks are categorized as acts of collective punishment.
PCHR condemns the crime of demolishing houses that falls within the collective punishment policy adopted by IOF against Palestinian civilians, which is protected by the Israeli judicial system.
PCHR reminds that this policy is internationally prohibited according to Article 33 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which states that, “No protected person may be punished for an offense he or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited. Pillage is prohibited. Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.”
Therefore, PCHR reiterates its call upon the international community to take immediate action to put an end to the Israeli crimes; and reiterates its call upon the High Contracting Parties to the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention to fulfill their obligations under Article 1; i.e., to respect and ensure respect for the Convention in all circumstances and their obligations under Article 146 to prosecute persons alleged to commit grave breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention.
These grave breaches constitute war crimes under Article 147 of the same Convention and Protocol (I) Additional to the Geneva Conventions regarding the guarantee of Palestinian civilians’ right to protection in the oPt.
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